21秋福师《现代语言学》考前练兵百分

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《现代语言学》考前练兵
1.[单选题] If a linguistic study aims to establish rules for “correct and standard” behavior in using language, i.e. to tell people what they should and what they should not say, it is said be _____________.

    A.descriptive
    B.synchronic
    C.prescriptive
    D.diachronic
    答:——C——
2.[单选题] Saussure took a _____________ view of language and his notion of langue is a matter of social conventions.
    A.pragmatic
    B.sociological
    C.semantic
    D.syntactic
    答:——B——
3.[单选题] _____________ consider language to be a set (finite or infinite) of sentences, each finite in length and constructed out of a finite set of elements.
    A.Saussure
    B.Chomsky
    C.Sapir
    D.Hall
    答:——B——
4.[单选题] The fact that there are many onomatopoeic words, such as rumble, crash, cackle, bang in English suggests that language is not entirely ___________________.
    A.logical
    B.non-arbitrary
    C.arbitrary
    D.illogical
    答:————
5.[单选题] The articulatory apparatus of a human being are contained in three important areas: the throat, the mouth and the nose. The air stream coming from ____________ may be modified in these cavities in various ways.
    A.hearts
    B.teeth
    C.livers
    D.lungs
    答:————
6.[单选题] The consonant [f] in English can be correctly described as having the following phonetic features: _______________.
    A.voiceless, bilabial, stop
    B.voiceless, labiodentals, fricative
    C.voiced, bilabial, stop
    D.voiced, labiodentals, fricative
    答:————
7.[单选题] Of the following sound combination, only ______________ is permissible according to the sequential rules in English.
    A.kilb
    B.bkil
    C.ilkb
    D.ilbk
    答:————
8.[单选题] The tone, defined as pitch variation, is an important suprasegmental feature of tone languages such as ________________.
    A.Chinese
    B.English
    C.Chinese and English
    D.English and French
    答:————
9.[单选题] Whereas the suffix –s is pronounced as in the word books, [z] in bags, and [iz] in judges, they are different pronunciations of the __________________ morpheme /-s/.
    A.free
    B.distinctive
    C.plural
    D.present tense
    答:————
10.[单选题] To determine a word’s category, three criteria are usually employed, namely, meaning, ___________ and distribution.
    A.inflection
    B.part of speech
    C.structure
    D.grammar
    答:————
11.[单选题] .?The yes-no question structures are built in two steps. In the first step, the usual XP is used to form a structure in which the auxiliary occupies its normal position in Infl, between the subject and the VP. The second step in forming a yes-no question requires a _____________, a special type of rule that can move the auxiliary from the Infl position to a position to the left of the subject.
    A.transformation
    B.change
    C.modification
    D.limit
    答:————
12.[单选题] Subcategorization means that a certain lexical requires a certain type of complement. For example, verbs like appear can occur without any complement, cut can occur with an NP complement and some heads in English such as ______________ can take more than one complement.
    A.eat
    B.drink
    C.plant
    D.put
    答:————
13.[单选题] According to the way they differ, synonyms can be divided into several kinds. The kind to which star and commence belong is called ____________ synonyms.
    A.stylistic
    B.dialectal
    C.emotive
    D.collocational
    答:————
14.[单选题] The relation between the word furniture and the words like bed, table, desk, dresser, wardrobe, settee etc. is called ____________________.
    A.hyponymy
    B.synonymy
    C.antonymy
    D.polysemy
    答:————
15.[单选题] “He was a bachelor all his life”_______________ “He never married all his life”.
    A.entails
    B.presupposes
    C.is inconsistent with
    D.is synonymous with
    答:————
16.[单选题] The description of a language as it changes through time is a _________________ study.
    A.comparative
    B.diachronic
    C.up-to-date
    D.descriptive
    答:————
17.[单选题] Chomsky looks at language from a ____________ point of view and to him competence is a property of the mind of each individual.
    A.pragmatic
    B.psychological
    C.semantic
    D.syntactic
    答:————
18.[单选题] The fact that different languages have different words for the same object is good proof that human language is _________________.
    A.arbitrary
    B.non-arbitrary
    C.logical
    D.non-productive
    答:————
19.[单选题] The limited range of sounds which are meaningful in human communication constitute the phonic medium of language; and the individual sounds within this range are the __________.
    A.speech sounds
    B.useful sounds
    C.human sounds
    D.communicative sounds
    答:————
20.[单选题] When the vocal cords are drawn wide apart, letting air go through without causing vibration, the sounds produced in such a condition are _____________.
    A.speech sounds
    B.useful sounds
    C.human sounds
    D.communicative sounds
    答:————
21.[单选题] When the vocal cords are drawn wide apart, letting air go through without causing vibration, the sounds produced in such a condition are _____________.
    A.voiceless
    B.lax
    答:————
22.[单选题] A phoneme is a phonological unit; it is a unit that is of distinctive value. It is a(n) ___________unit. It is not any particular sound, but rather it is represented or realized by a certain phone in a certain phonetic context.
    A.abstract
    B.concrete
    C.complementary
    D.phonetic
    答:————
23.[单选题] If three consonants should cluster together at the beginning of a word, the combination should obey the following three rules: 1) The first phoneme must be _________;2) The second phoneme must be /p/ or /t/ or /k/; 3) The third phoneme must be /l/ or /r/ or /w/.
    A./g/
    B./z/
    C./f/
    D./s/
    答:————
24.[单选题] __________________refers to the part of the grammar that is concerned with word formation and word structure.
    A.General linguistics
    B.Phonology   
    C.Morphology
    D.Syntax
    答:————
25.[单选题] There are different types of affixes or morphemes. The affix “-ed” in the phrase “learned a language” is known as a(n) _______________.
    A.derivational morpheme
    B.free morpheme
    C.inflectional morpheme
    D.free from
    答:————
26.[单选题] The word around which a phrase is formed is termed head. The words on the left side of the heads are said to function as  _______________. The words on the right side of the right side of the heads are said to function as complements.
    A.qualifier
    B.auxiliary
    C.determiner
    D.specifier
    答:————
27.[单选题] In the sentence will the train arrive, will retains its Infl label even through it is moved into the C position, and the position that it formerly occupied remains in the tree structure. The position is now marked by the symbol e (=empty), and called a ______________.
    A.auxiliary
    B.trace
    C.functional word
    D.content word
    答:————
28.[单选题] The contextualist view of meaning is based on the presumption that one can derive meaning from or reduce meaning to observable context. Two kinds of context are recognized: the situational context and the _________________ context.
    A.distinctive
    B.observable
    C.linguistic
    D.similar
    答:————
29.[单选题] The same one word may have more than one meaning. The various meanings of the word are related to some degree. This is what we call ________________. For example, the word table means a piece of furniture, and it may also mean all the people seated at a table.
    A.polysemy
    B.hyponymy
    C.antonymy
    D.homonymy
    答:————
30.[单选题] A pair of complementary antonyms is characterized by the feature that the denial of one member of the pair implies the assertion of the other, that is, it is a matter of either one or the other. The following pairs are all complementary antonyms except _______________.
    A.perfect and imperfect
    B.husband and wife
    C.male and female
    D.dead and alive
    答:————
31.[单选题] “This is my first visit to your country” _______________ “I have been to your country before”.
    A.entails
    B.presupposes
    C.is inconsistent with
    D.is synonymous with
    答:————
32.[单选题] Saussure uses the term _______________ to refer to the realization of abstract linguistic system in actual use, i.e. the concrete use of the conventions and the application of the rules..
    A.langue
    B.competence
    C.parole
    D.performance
    答:————
33.[单选题] It is generally believd that the beginning of __________________ was marked by the publication of F. de Saussure’s book Course in General Linguistics in the early 20th century.
    A.pragmatics
    B.syntax
    C.semantics
    D.modern linguistics
    答:————
34.[单选题] ______________ refers to the defining properties of human language that distinguish it from any animal system of communication. By comparing language with animal communication systems, we can have a better understanding of the nature of language.
    A.Distinctive features
    B.Semantic features
    C.Logical features
    D.Design features
    答:————
35.[单选题] The study of sounds used in linguistic communication led to the establishment of ____________. It is concerned with all the sounds that occur in the world’s language.
    A.phonetics
    B.semantics
    C.morphology
    D.syntax
    答:————
36.[单选题] One important feature that marks the difference between vowels and constants is that whether the air coming from the lungs meet with any ____________.
    A.aspiration
    B.obstruction
    C.voicing
    D.transition
    答:————
37.[单选题] The features that a phoneme possesses, making it different from other phonemes, are its __________________, such as voicing, manner of articulation, place of articulation, etc.
    A.different components
    B.distinctive features
    C.different sounds
    D.different allophones
    答:————
38.[单选题] The sound assimilation is actually reflected in the spelling in most cases. Instead of impossible, the negative form of possible is impossible, as the [n] sound is assimilated to [m]. For the same reason, the negative prefixes for words like plausible, legal, regular are___________________ respectively.
    A.im-, il- and ir-
    B.im-, im-, in-
    C.in-, il-, and ir-
    D.im-, in-, ir
    答:————
39.[单选题] Conjunctions, _______________, articles and pronouns consist of the grammatical or functional words. The number of such words is small and stable since few new words are added, therefore such words have been referred to as closed class words.
    A.nouns
    B.adjectives
    C.prepositions
    D.adverbs
    答:————
40.[单选题] _______________ refers to a group of linguistic items which fulfill the same or similar functions in a particular language such as a sentence, a noun phrase or a verb.
    A.Word
    B.Category
    C.Morpheme
    D.Phoneme
    答:————
41.[单选题] In the phrase structure rules such as “NP → (Det) N (PP)” or “VP →  (Qual) V (NP),” the arrow can be read as “_____________”.
    A.is equal to
    B.consists of
    C.has
    D.generates
    答:————
42.[单选题] Synonyms are classified into several kinds. The kind to which girl and lass belong is called ____________ synonyms.
    A.stylistic
    B.dialectal
    C.emotive
    D.collocational
    答:————
43.[单选题] ______________ refers to the phenomenon that words having different meanings have the same forms, i.e. words with different meanings are identical in sound or spelling, or both. For example, rain/reign, bow v./bow n. and bear n./bear v.
    A.Polysemy
    B.Hyponymy
    C.Antonymy
    D.Homonymy
    答:————
44.[单选题] Pairs of words that exhibit the reversal of a relationship between the two items are called relational opposites. The following pairs are all relational opposites except _____________.
    A.doctor and patient
    B.husband and wife
    C.male and female
    D.teacher and student
    答:————
45.[单选题] “I bought some roses” _______________ “I bought some flowers.”
    A.entails
    B.presupposes
    C.is inconsistent with
    D.is synonymous with
    答:————
46.[判断题] Modern linguistics is mainly prescriptive. It studies what is normally known as “grammar” and is normally based on “high” (religious, literary) written language. It aims to set model for language users to follow. ( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
47.[判断题] According Saussure, parole is simply a mass of linguistic fact, too varied and confusing for systematic investigation, and what linguists should do is to abstract langue from parole, i.e. to discover the regularities governing the actual use of language.( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
48.[判断题] Human capacity for language has a genetic basis, i.e. we are all born with the ability to acquire language and the details of a language system are genetically transmitted.( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
49.[判断题] Vowels may be classified as front, central, and back according to which part of the tongue is held highest, i.e. maintains the highest position.( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
50.[判断题] The sound [l] in the two English words leap and peel is pronounced differently. The first one is what we call a clear [l] and the second one a dark [?]. From the phonological point of view, these two sounds are fundamentally the same.( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
51.[判断题] We can always tell by the words a compound contains what it means because the meaning of a compound is always the sum of the meanings of its parts.( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
52.[判断题] Semantics can be defined as the study of meaning. So far the question of what meaning really is has been resolved.( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
53.[判断题] If we take “The dog is barking” as something a speaker utters in a certain situation with a certain purpose, then we are regarding it as a sentence.( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
54.[判断题] Since the Second World War there has been a trend towards much greater informality of expression. Conversational forms like ain’t, don’t and can’t are now commonly used in articles in the press.( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
55.[判断题] Women are usually more status-conscious than men in the English-speaking world; therefore, their speech more closely approaches the standard variety than the speech of men. For instance, women have a lower frequency of using [n] for [?] than men do.( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
56.[判断题] The writing system of a language is always a later invention used to record speech; thus there are still many languages in today’s world that can only be spoken, but not written.( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
57.[判断题] Contrary to Saussure, Chomsky thinks that what linguists should study is the ideal speakers’ performance, i.e. the actualization of linguistic knowledge in real communication.( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
58.[判断题] The speech organs located in the oral cavity are the tongue, the uvula, the soft palate, the hard palate, the teeth ridge, the teeth and lips.( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
59.[判断题] In English, long vowels are also tense vowels because when we pronounce a long vowel such as /i:/, the larynx is in a state of tension.( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
60.[判断题] If someone should pronounce the dark [?] in the word peel incorrectly as a clear [l], an English speaker would not for this reason fail to understand him, he would still understand what action he is talking about but would only find his pronunciation a little bit strange.( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
61.[判断题] The syntactic category of the specifier differs depending on the category of the head. If the heads are Ns, the specifiers are determiners. If the heads are Vs, the specifiers are qualifiers and if the head are As or Ps, then the specifiers are degree words.( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
62.[判断题] The meaning of the word black doesn’t differ in the two collocations of black hair and black coffee since linguistic context doesn’t form part of the meaning of the word.( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
63.[判断题] The meaning of a sentence is abstract, and decontextualized, that of an utterance is concrete, and context-dependent. The meaning of an utterance is the realization of the abstract meaning of a sentence in a context.( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
64.[判断题] Two people who speak the same regional dialect may speak different social-class dialects, or sociolects. Their social background influence their choice of linguistic forms, and the linguistic feature of the language they use reveal their identities.( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
65.[判断题] Male speech is, on the whole, less assertive and thus sounds to be more polite than male speech. For instance, male speakers tend to use more often the question tag and such syntactic forms as I’m afraid…and I’m not sure but… ( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
66.[判断题] Langue is relatively stable, it does not change frequently; while parole varies from person to person, and from situation to situation.( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
67.[判断题] An important difference between traditional grammarians and modern linguists in their study of language is that the former tended to overemphasize the written form of language and encourage people to imitate the “best authors” for language usage.( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
68.[判断题] In such sound combinations as / p?t/, /?pe?p?/ and / ple?n/, the voiceless stop /p/, occurring in the first position, is unaspirated, i.e. pronounced with the strong puff of air withheld to some extent.( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
69.[判断题] A general difference between phonetics and phonology is that phonetics is focused on the production of speech sounds while phonology is more concerned with how speech sounds distinguish meaning.( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
70.[判断题] We can add –un to adjectives to form new adjective words. This un-Rule is not as productive for adjectives composed of just one morpheme as for those that are themselves derived for verbs, such as unacceptable and undecided.( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
71.[判断题] What essentially distinguishes semantics and pragmatics is whether in the study of meaning the context of use is considered. If it is not considered, the study is being carried out in the area of pragmatics.( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
72.[判断题] Grice specified two kinds of implied meaning or implicature: conventional implicature and non-conventional implicature. Conventional implicature is inferred by the hearer with reference to the context of communication. For example, he is rich but he is not greedy.( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
73.[判断题] It has been found that the absence of the suffix of third-person present-tense singular form of verbs and the non-standard use of double negation like I can’t eat nothing are not correlated with the social status of the speaker.( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
74.[判断题] Different styles of same language can be characterized through differences at syntactic level. For example, the use of passive and impersonal constructions can account for the higher degree of formality in some discourses.( )
    A.对
    B.错
    答:————
75.[问答题] According to Austin, what are the three acts a person is possible performing while making an utterance? Give an example.
    答:————
76.[问答题] What are the major functions of language? Think of your own examples for illustration.
    答:————
77.[问答题] What is pragmatic failure? Try to find instances of pragmatic failure in the English used by Chinese learners of English.
    答:————
78.[名词解释] duality
    答:————
79.[名词解释] Cooperative Principle
    答:————
80.[名词解释] Register
    答:————
81.[名词解释] displacement
    答:————
82.[名词解释] Sociolinguistics
    答:————
83.[名词解释] idiolect
    答:————
84.[名词解释] cultural transmission
    答:————
85.[名词解释] Interlanguage
    答:————
86.[名词解释] assimilation rule
    答:————


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