Ⅰ. For each question there are four choices. Decide which one would be the best answer to the question, or would best complete the sentence. Write the corresponding letter on your ANSWER SHEET. (20%)
1. “take” and “table” can be called _______ because they can stand as a word by themselves.
A. inflectional morphemes B. free morphemes C. stems D. roots
2. If two sounds are of no distinctive value, but are varieties of the same phoneme, they are called ______.
A. phones B. speech sounds C. allophones D. morphs
3. Traditional grammar is ________.
A. descriptive B. prescriptive C. non-Latin-based D. wrong
4. The semantic components of the word “girl” can be expressed as _____.
A. +human, +male, +adult B. +human, -male, +adult
C. +human, -male, -adult D. +human, +male, -adult
5. _______ is a type of phonological process by which one sound takes on some or all the characteristics of a neighboring sound.
A. Assimilation B. Transformation C. Code-switching D. Interference
6. Which of the following sounds is a voiced bilabial stop? ______.
A. [m] B. [v] C. [d] D. [b]
7. The syllabic structure of the word “linguistics” is ______.
A. CVCCVCCVCC B. CVCCCVCCVCC
C. CVCCVVCCVCC D. CVCVVCCVCC
8. ________ refers to the abstract linguistic system shared by all the members of a speech community.
A. Langue B. Performance C. Competence D. Parole
9. The words such as “brunch”, “motel” are _______.
A. formed by blending B. acronyms
C. coined by back formation D. clipped words
10. Many Chinese English learners may, at the beginning stage, produce “mans” and “photoes” as the plural forms of “man” and “photo”. This is most likely the result of _______ in the process of foreign language learning.
A. Negative transfer B. Overgeneralization
C. Positive transfer D. mother tongue interference
Ⅱ. Decide whether each of the following statements is True or False. (20%)
11. Displacement refers to the phenomenon that human language can be used to talk about things that are absent in time and space.
12. Phonology deals with the defining properties of human language which make it different from animal communication.
13. Cooperative principles are the restrictions on the type of noun that can be selected with each verb
14. A register is a variety of a language which is selected as appropriate to a certain type of situation.
15. Complementary distribution refers to the phenomena that allophones occur in different phonetic environments.
16. Bilingualism is a sociolinguistic situation where two varieties of a language exist side by side throughout the community, with each having a definite role to play.
17. Homonymy is the case where two, or more meanings, are associated with the same linguistic form.
18. Norm Chomsky is the father of Transformational-Generative Grammar.
19. An endocentric construction has no head, or no center.
20. Learner errors can be found at any stage of interlanguage and provide evidence of the learning process.
Ⅲ. Reading comprehension. Read the following passage and answer each of the questions based on it. Choose the correct answer write the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET. (20%)
Our culture has caused most Americans to assume not only that our language is universal but that the gestures we use are understood by everyone. We do not realize that waving good-bye is the way to summon a person from the Philippines to one’s side, or that in Italy and some Latin-American countries, curling the finger to oneself is a sign of farewell.
Those private citizens who sent packages to our troops occupying Germany after World War II and marked them GIFT to escape duty payments did not bother to find out that “Gift” means poison in German. Moreover, we like to think of ourselves as friendly, yet we prefer to be at least 3 feet or an arm’s length away from others. Latins and Middle Easterners like to come closer and touch, which makes Americans uncomfortable.
Our linguistic and cultural blindness and the casualness with which we take notice of the developed tastes, gestures, customs and languages of other countries, are losing us friends, business and respect in the world.
Even here in the United States, we make few concessions to the needs of foreign visitors. There are no information signs in four languages on our public buildings or monuments; we do not have multilingual guided tours. Very few restaurant menus have translations, and multilingual waiters, bank clerks and policemen are rare. Our transportation systems have maps in English only and often we ourselves have difficulty understanding them.
When we go abroad, we tend to cluster in hotels and restaurants where English is spoken. Then attitudes and information we pick up are conditioned by those natives—usually the richer—who speak English. Our business dealings, as well as the nation’s diplomacy, are conducted through interpreters.
For many years, American dollars no longer buy all good things, and we are slowly beginning to realize that our proper role in the world is changing. A 1979 Harris poll reported that 55 percent of Americans want this country to play a more significant role in world affairs; we want to have a hand in the important decisions of the next century, even though it may not always be the upper hand.
21. It can be inferred from this article that Americans being approached too closely by Middle Easterners would most probably ________.
A. stand still
B. jump aside
C. step forward
D. draw back
22. The author gives many examples to criticize Americans for their ________.
A. cultural self-centeredness
B. casual manners
C. indifference towards foreign visitors
D. arrogance towards other cultures
23. In countries other than their own，most Americans ________.
A. are isolated by the local people
B. are not well informed due to the language barrier
C. tend to get along well with the natives
D. need interpreters in hotels and restaurants
24. According to the author, Americans’ cultural blindness and linguistic ignorance will ________.
A. affect their image in the new era
B. cut themselves off from the outside world
C. limit their role in world affairs
D. weaken the position of the US dollar
25. The author’s intention in writing this article is to make Americans realize that ________.
A. it is dangerous to ignore their foreign friends
B. it is important to maintain their leading role in world affairs
C. it is necessary to use several languages in public places
D. it is time to get acquainted with other cultures
Ⅳ. Answer the following questions, each in 120 to 200 words. Write your answer on the ANSWER SHEET. (40%)
26. Why is it necessary to teach cultural knowledge in foreign language classes? (20%)
27. What have you learned from the course of linguistics? (20%)
(Clue: You can say whatever, linguistic or non-linguistic, you have learned from the course. But make sure your answer is clear and logical. You may answer the question in Chinese, but this may result in a loss of marks.)