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张老师 发表于 2019-7-26 17:37:01 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
张老师
2019-7-26 17:37:01 167 14 看全部
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福师《大学英语(2)》课程开篇导学
前言:
同学们,你们好!新学期即将开始,你们一定很想了解福师《大学英语(2)》是怎样一门课,它的教学目标和基本任务是什么,能学到那些英语知识,如何学好这些知识,有那些可利用的网络辅导资源。下面就这些问题给大家做一概述。
一、教学目标、基本任务和要求
福师《大学英语(2)》是一门训练学生综合技能,尤其是听、说与阅读理解能力的课程。其主要目的在于培养学生综合运用英语的能力。本课程主要通过语言基础训练和篇章讲解分析,使学生逐步提高语篇阅读理解能力,了解英语各种文体的表达方式和特点,扩大词汇量和熟悉英语常用句型,具备基本的口头与笔头表达能力。每个单元都配备有大量的相关练习。
二、可以学到那些知识?
1.基础词汇和语法
2. 日常交流表达方式
3. 写作知识和技巧
4. 英美文化背景
三、如何才能学好这些知识?
本门课程突出了语言基础训练。所以,同学们的主要任务就是打好坚实的语言基础。(1)希望同学们注重口语的表达。对于教材中对话部分应该理解并学会运用。(2)希望同学们掌握一定的语法。对于教材中循序加深的语法结构,要理解并记忆。同时通过对语篇的理解加深对语法的记忆和运用。(3)希望同学们坚持写作。学习教材中提及的各种文体的书写要求及规范,请大家多练习直至能熟练的运用。(4)希望同学们坚持完成每个单元相关的练习。
四、有哪些可利用的辅导资源?
首先是课件教材的合理使用,其次,请同学们充分利用论坛来解决自己学习中的疑惑,我会回答大家的所有问题并在论坛中发些辅导资料。另外,请大家在课外业余时间多读书读报,全面提高自己的英语水平。
结束语:
通过本课程的学习,同学们能初步培养综合运用英语的能力,掌握一定的词汇和语法,具备基本的口头与笔头表达能力,了解英美国家文化背景,为成为新型高级英语人才奠定了坚实的专业基础。
这是一门重要而不乏味、与实际操作联系紧密的课程,我将和大家共同学习、共同勉励,希望同学们能以最大的热情投入到这门课的学习中来,学有所得、学有所乐、学有所用,祝你们学习愉快!

福师《大学英语(2)》第一课拓展资源
描写文
Description

   描写文是一种用语言对客观世界加以艺术和主观描绘的文体。它把对某一物体、人物、地方或景色的印象和了解细腻地表达出来,在读者面前再现它们的形象。其特点是描写的具体性、生动性和创造性。描写的细节要能表达主题。同时,应该注意描写的顺序,可按照空间位置顺序、时间顺序等进行写作。根据内容,描写文可分为人物描写和地点描写。

 1. 人物描写(Description of a Person
  人物描写主要是针对人物的外部特征、性格和形象进行描绘,有着重要的烘托作用。人物描写的功能多种多样,可以刻画人物性格特征,表现人物精神面貌,揭露人物内心活动,揭示人物身份境遇,显示人物性格变化,突出作品主题思想。为使描写形象逼真、线条清晰、性格鲜明,作者要善于观察,调动丰富的想像力和敏锐的判断力,抓住描写对象的独特之处,并精于语言技巧,用生动活泼的语言再现人物鲜明的形象和性格。

   Sample 1
My sister is a boyish girl. Shehas short and straight hair like a boy's. She likes white, black and greycolors, as most boys do. She never cares for skirts, stockings but lovesjackets and jeans. Sometimes she wears a men's suit and leather shores as ifshe were a gentleman. Basketball and football are her favorite sports. She alsoenjoys watching boxing. She always shouts and cheers excitedly when she iswatching a football match. When she is with her friends, she always says"Ladies first" to other girls. The most interesting thing is that shehas been mistaken for a boy many times. And she is pleased with that. Shealways says that she should be a boy.  
   第一句中作者明确表示他眼中的妹妹是个男孩子气十足的小姑娘。这样读者大都会在心中勾画出一个从长相、穿着到言谈举止都比较男性化的女孩。接下来作者正是通过穿着、外貌和性格等方面向读者展现了一个活生生的人物形象。

    2. 地点描写(Description of a Place
  地点描写是指用生动形象的语言对地点或环境进行具体逼真的摹写描绘,使读者如睹其物、如临其境。在训练地点描写文的写作时,最好先练习一个十分熟悉的小地点,如教室、房间、商店、公园等,然后再练习描写一些较大的地点,如学校、街道、城市、国家等。要把地点描写得有形有神、可感可触,作者应尽力做到观察入微、重点突出、描写生动、信息量大、感染力强。这种描写通常有两种方法。
  1)整体印象细节描述(Overall Impression to Detailed Discussion
  这种方法的描写先给出地点全貌的鸟瞰,然后用细节叙述对整体印象加以描述。这种方法的特点是突出文章的主题,吸引读者。其具体的写法是:首先选定要描写的地点,譬如教室,想想这个教室给你留下什么突出的印象,并将这种印象概括为一句话,这句话便是该段的主题句,如"My classroom is very cleanand tidy.",然后就描述它如何"clean""tidy"
   Sample 2
Hainan is China's largest specialeconomic zone and youngest province. Since it was established ten years ago,the economic zone has experienced rapid development in many aspects. Thecomfortable residential quarters have been built up, highways have beenconstructed, and modem ports and airports have been built. Hainan, as a famous "naturalgreenhouse", also enjoys a lot of advantages in tropical agriculture.Hainan is also a scenic spot and it has quickly become a resort for holidaymakers. The Hainan Special Economic Zone has a bright future.  
2)细节描述→整体印象(Detailed Discussion to Overall Impression)
  这种方法正好与上述方法相反,它先列出描述性细节,然后归纳出整体印象。这种方法的特点是循序渐进,从具体到一般,能启迪读者的思维。其具体写法是:首先对描述对象进行细心观察,将其有意义的细节逐项列出,然后总结出整体印象,这时主题句往往置于段末。
   Sample 3
Now Iwill show you around our school. When you step into the gate, you will see abeautiful flower bed before you. In the middle of the flower bed there is afountain with many colored flowers around it. If you walk along the schoolroad, you will come to the playground, on each side of which are rows of trees.We often read books under the trees. On the right of the playground are twoclassroom buildings. On the left is the newly-built four-storied building. Itis one of the largest middle schools in the city. I'm lucky to study here. Ilove my school very much.

 楼主| 张老师 发表于 2019-7-26 17:37:27 | 显示全部楼层
张老师
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福师《大学英语(2)》第二课拓展资源
记叙文
Narration
    记叙文是以记人叙事为主要内容、以叙述为主要表达方式的文章。它的基本特点就是陈述过程,通常以记叙和描写为主,是叙述人们的经历或事物发展变化过程的一种表达方式。记叙文一般具有时间、地点、人物、事件、原因和结果6个要素,其目的是回答what, who, how, when, where, why等问题。英语的记叙文一般是以第一或第三人称的角度来叙述的。用第一人称表示的是由叙述者亲眼所见、亲耳所闻的经历。它的优点在于能把故事的情节通过来传达给读者,使人读后感到真实可信,如身临其境。叙述的线索有以下5种。
  (1)以时间为线索,按时间的顺序来展开。
  (2)以地点为线索,以地点的转移为顺序来展开。
  (3)以事件发展的过程为线索,或以人物出现的先后次序来展开。
  (4)以事物的象征意义为线索来展开。
  (5)以人物的思想行为及认知的过程为线索来展开。
叙述的语言特点以一般过去时为主,其他各种时态为辅,合理使用丰富多彩的谓语动词时态。 叙述时多用动词,特别是动态强的行为动词, 以及直接引语。写作顺序可以采用“顺叙”、“倒叙”和“穿插叙述”的方法。
    1. 记叙文的写作要求
  (1)提供一定的情景或背景。
  (2)提供足够数量的生动、真切的细节。
  (3)理顺叙事的步骤。
(4)叙述者观察事物发展的角度必须一致。
     2. 记叙文写作的注意事项
   (1)主题鲜明,内容清楚。文章中的故事应有头有尾,要写出事情的发生、发展、变化及结束的过程。确切地说,在记叙时要把与一件事物有关的时间、地点、人物、原因等因素交代清楚。
  (2)层次分明,有条有理。记叙时要有开头、正文及结尾。有时涉及几个人或几件事,一件事往往牵涉到相关的次要事情;有时一件大事中还包括几件小事,这就要对记叙的事情做出分析,分清主线和副线,并围绕主线安排副线。
  (3)详略得当,主次适宜。记叙事情时,要注意主题鲜明突出、清楚具体,内容感人深刻。写人时,要抓住典型事例、典型行动和表现。对中心事件和最能表现中心思想的地方,要详细叙述;而对次要的东西,要少写或不写。选材要注意取舍,应该从表现文章主题的需要出发,分清主次,突出重点,详写细述那些能表现文章主题的重要情节,略写粗述那些非关键的次要情节。
     3.记叙文的分类
   叙述文大致可分为以下3类。
  1)以记人为主的记叙文
  即以人物为中心组织材料,围绕这个人物可以写一件事,也可写几件事。这类记叙文应注意肖像描写、行动描写、语言描写、心理描写及细节描写,突出重点。一般是通过人物行为、活动的几个片断或不同的侧面来写,有时也可以通过一个完整的事件来写。
   Sample 1
Mark Twain(1835-1910), one of the best known American writersin the nineteenth century, was born in Missouri in the middle part of theUnited States.
  Mark Twain's hometown lay on thebanks of the Mississippi River, where he spent his childhood. When he grew uphe worked as a sailor on a riverboat for some time. Mark Twain was his penname.
Mark Twain wrote a lot of novels, one ofwhich is The Adventure of Tom Sawyer, the masterpiece which brought him fameand honor. Some of his writings have been translated into many languages. Heand his works are deeply loved by readers throughout the world.
   本文为人物简介,共分三段,层层深入地把马克·吐温一生的重大事件表达得清清楚楚。文章的时态主要用过去时,最后两句与现在有关,因此用了现在完成时和一般现在时。
     2)以写事为主的记叙文
  即以事件为中心组织材料,主要是交代事件的发生、发展和前因、后果。这类记叙文应注意叙述顺序及事件的相对完整性,要围绕中心事件,把握好事件的开端、发展、高潮和结局。文章的着眼点在事件的过程中。
   Sample 2
It was fine on April 8, 2008. Thatday all the students in our class went to the suburb of our city to planttrees.
On arriving at the planting place at 8o'clock, the teacher asked each of us to plant 5 trees at least. Then we setabout digging, planting and watering. All of us were going all out to finishour task, afraid of falling behind. Among us, our monitor set a good example tous. In spite of his illness, he accepted his task and finished it ahead oftime. Then he went on to help others without a little rest. After work, he waswet all over. He looked pale, but he was full of joy. Looking at the lines ofthe young trees, we smiled pleasantly, forgetting our tiredness.
     本文记叙了200848植树的情况,因此全文用过去时。第一段交代清楚这次活动的时间、地点和参加的人员,第二段叙述了植树过程。
     3)以写景状物为主的记叙文
  把景和物作为主要的记叙对象,作者笔下的景物,不仅生动逼真地再现出客观的景物,还能表现一定的主题思想,表现作者自己的信念、情趣和人格。
   Sample 3
Gulangyu is an island separatedfrom Xiamen city. It's like a garden on the water. The shade of the treescovers nearly the whole island. Cars, buses, bikes are not allowed to drivethere. Everyone should walk. This makes the place very quiet so that musicplayed by the piano or the violin can be heard here and there.
  The Sunshine Rock is the highestplace on the island, so it has become the symbol of Gulangyu. Standing at thetop of the Sunshine Rock, one can see the landscape of the whole Xiamen andother small islands. The sky and the sea meet on the horizon. It's said thatpeople can see clearly the Jinmen Island through telescope on a sunny day.
  At the foot of the Sunshine Rockis a beautiful garden.No.44 Bridge spans over the water like a white dragon.What a beautiful picture!
Such is Gulangyu, a fairyland in the world.
   本文采用先总后分的写法对鼓浪屿进行了描写。第一段总的介绍其地理位置与特点。第二、三段采取由上到下或由高向低的顺序进行描述:第二段写由该岛最高处俯瞰全城的情景;第三段写山脚下的花园美景。最后,作者用一句话总括全文:鼓浪屿是人间仙境。


福师《大学英语(2)》第二课FAQ
名词性从句(二)
Nominal Clauses (II)  
1. 名词性从句在句中作主语
   从句在句中作主语时,其位置与陈述句基本结构中的主语相同,即放在主句谓语动词之前。但在某些情况下,可以由it充当形式主语,而把主语从句放在主句之后。例如:
That I was right is clear.  我是对的,这很清楚。
It is quite clear that the crime was done deliberately.  很明显这次犯罪是故意的。
That Professor Wang will come is certain.   王教授要来是确定无疑的。
It's a pity that Tom can not attend the English evening.   真可惜,汤姆不能参加英语晚会。
What caused the fire is still a mystery. 是什么引起了这次火灾仍然是一个谜。
What he said is not true.   他所说的不是真的。
Who was responsible for the accident is not clear. 谁为这次事故负责还不清楚。
Who is coming to the party is unknown.   谁来参加聚会,还不知道。
Why he left so suddenly is not known to any of us.  我们都不知道他为什么这么突然地离开。
Why Tom was late remains a puzzle.  汤姆为什么迟到还是一个谜。
How the book will sell depend on its author.  书卖得怎么样取决于它的作者。
How she got the prize is still a secret.  她怎样得到的那个奖还仍然是一个秘密。
Whether she comes or not doesn't concern me.  她来不来我不关心。
Whether he'll come or not has not been decided yet.   他是否来还没有决定。
Wherever he once lived is well preserved.   他曾住过的地方都被很好地保留了下来。
Where we will meet will be decided by you.  我们什么时候见面将由你来决定。  
Which team has won the game is not known.   哪个队赢了比赛,还不知道。  
When we will have the discussion depends on the teacher.   我们什么时候讨论将取决于老师。

2. 名词性从句在句中作同位语
  1) 同位语从句一般放在某些抽象名词,如news, fact, belief, idea, suggestion, advice等词之后,以具体说明这些名词所包含的内容。同位语从句一般由连词that和whether引导。例如:
The fact that honesty is the best policy is beyond doubt.  诚实至上这个事实是不容置疑的。
They had to face the fact that the nearest filling station is 30 miles away.  他们不得不面对这个事实,就是最近的加油站也在30英里以外。
My original question, why he did it at all, has not been answered.  我最先的问题,就是他到底为什么要做那件事,还没有被回答。
Have you any idea how soon they are coming?  你知不知道他们多快能来?
I have no idea how much of a scholar he is. 我不清楚他是怎样的一个学者。
We hold this truth that all men are created equal.  我们深信“人人生而平等”这一真理。
His suggestion that we hold the meeting next week cannot be accepted. 他有关下周开会的建议不能被接受。
The problem whether it is right or wrong has not yet been decided.   这件事是对是错尚无定论。
  2) 同位语从句和定语从句的区别如下:
① 定语从句中的关系代词that既连接先行词和从句,又指代先行词,在从句中充当成分(主语或宾语),that作宾语时可以省略;而同位语中的that是连词,只起连接主句和从句的作用,不在从句中充当任何成分,一般不可以省略。
② 定语从句是形容词性的,其功能是修饰先行词,对先行词加以限定,描述它的性质或特征;同位语从句等同于先行词,是名词性的,其功能是对名词作补充说明。
③ 同位语从句的先行词应该是表示抽象概念的名词,而定语从句的先行词可以是抽象概念的词,也可以是具体概念的词。
请比较:
The proposal that he put forward is to be discussed at the meeting.  他提出的建议将在会上讨论。(定语从句,that在从句中作put forward的宾语)
The proposal that we should import more equipment from abroad is to be discussed at the meeting.  我们应当从国外进口更多设备这个建议将在会议上讨论。(同位语从句,that在句中不作任何成分)
She received the message that you sent for her a few days ago.  你几天前发给她的消息她收到了。(定语从句,that作sent 的宾语)
She received the message that he would come by air.  她收到了他将乘飞机来的消息。(同位语从句,that在句中不作任何成分)

3. 名词性从句在句中作介词补足成分
   名词性从句在句中作介词补足成分也就是我们前面提到的充当介词的宾语。例如:
Before I came downstairs I had prepared myself very carefully for what I must say.  在下楼之前我就把必须要讲的内容好好准备了。
Laura's experiences show that if someone can do their job really well, then the question of whether they are male of female is not important.  劳拉的经历说明只要一个人的工作干得真的好,那么性别问题就不重要了。
You must give it back to whomever it belongs to.  你必须物归原主。

 楼主| 张老师 发表于 2019-7-26 17:37:48 | 显示全部楼层
张老师
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福师《大学英语(2)》第三课拓展资源
说明文
Exposition

   说明文以直接和精确的语言呈现事实和观点,通常不需要华丽的或修饰性的单词或短语。说明文试图向读者解释事物及它的作用或与其他事物有何联系等。说明文的目的是让读者理解而不是激发读者的想像或情感。文章是作者与读者分享知识的一种方式。说明文最重要的作用在于提供给读者精确而完整的信息并分析信息。
  说明文是用说明的表达方式来解说事物或阐明事理。说明文的种类很多,主要有事物说明文和事理说明文。写英语说明文应注意以下8个方面。
     1.注意审题
  在提笔之前,要仔细阅读题干,弄清题目要求,并思考这样几个问题:我要写什么?我要写给谁?我应该如何向读者很好地传达思想?想好了这几个问题,写作前就有了准备。  
     2.注意开好头
  文章的起始段决定着文章的发展方向,其作用是:点明并限定主题;提供与主题有关的必要信息;导入主题句;引起读者兴趣,并将其注意力引向文章的主体段落。
     3.注意写好主题句
  主题句能够体现全文的中心思想。鉴于主题句的作用和特点,其表述一定要清晰具体,最好用陈述句来表达。
     4.注意行文的统一性和连贯性
  一篇好文章,首先要有统一性,也就是文章的中心思想要明确,一切事实、材料、手段的运用都要围绕这个中心并突出这个中心。一些与主题关联不多的材料尽量不要使用,以保证文章的统一性。
  连贯性主要表现在段与段之间的关系上,后一段应该是前一段的自然过渡和发展。在形式上,段首可用一些关联词来体现这种段与段之间的逻辑关系。恰当的关联词可以使文章条理清晰,富有连贯性。
     5.注意说明方法的选择
  常用的说明方法有举例法、过程分析法、分类法、因果分析法、比较法、细节法等,写作时可以根据说明的对象、目的来选择最佳的说明方法。
     6.注意说明顺序
  要把说明文写得条理分明,就要掌握一定的说明顺序。常用的说明顺序有空间顺序、时间顺序、逻辑顺序和认识顺序。空间顺序是指从整体到局部、从上到下、从内到外的顺序;时间顺序是指时间上从先到后的顺序;逻辑顺序是指先因后果或先果后因或先主后次的顺序;认识顺序是指由此及彼、由浅入深、由局部到整体、由现象到本质、由具体到抽象的顺序。
     7.注意结尾
  结尾段是文章的总结,一方面可以重述主题,给读者留下深刻的印象;另一方面,有了恰当的结尾,文章的结构才会完整无缺。然而“重述”主题并不等于“重复”主题,重述主题是要用不同的词句重新强调文章的主题内容。结尾段应简短、自然,避免介入新的话题,笔调要与上文保持一致。
     8.注意检查
  检查也应该是写作的一部分。很多同学往往写完作文后就弃之不管,这是一个不好的习惯。通过检查,可以避免一些不必要的错误,使文章更趋于完美。检查的内容主要包括基本的语法问题、单词拼写问题、大小写问题、文章的衔接问题等。
  下面举例来阐述说明文的写法。
   Sample 1  
Life in Caves
Most large caves have three distinct zones, and each zone is home to a different kind of natural life. In the innermost part of the cave, the darkness is complete and the temperature never varies. Without light no green plants can live, and animals have no need for eyes. The next zone, although still dark and moist, has a variable temperature. Animals that otherwise live outside inhabit this zone seasonally. The third zone, called the twilight zone, begins wherever light from the cave entrance can first be seen. A few green plants can grow in this zone. Most of the animals in this zone use the cave as shelter from the outdoors. In each zone the plant and animal life adapts to the meager resources of its home.
   这个典型的说明性段落由三个基本部分组成:主题句、支持句和结论句。段落的第一句是主题句,总结和体现段落的中心思想——大多数大的洞穴都有三个不同的区域,而且每个区域都生长着典型的动植物;后面的支持句详细说明这三个区域的不同之处及动植物的典型特征;最后一句进行总结,进一步呼应主题句。  
   Sample 2  
   Beijing Weekend is published every Friday. It is a highly entertaining 16-page tabloid, a favorite with the foreign community and English-reading Chinese in Beijing. It is packed with information about sightseeing, shopping, dining and entertainment in the Chinese capital. Along with feature stories, Beijing Weekend carries regular columns about local history and events as well as readers' submissions.  
   本段说明文是一份报刊介绍,文字精练,言简意赅,是典型的广告说明。它介绍了《北京周报》出版发行的时间、主要的读者群、报道的主要内容等方面的特点。
 楼主| 张老师 发表于 2019-7-26 17:38:21 | 显示全部楼层
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福师《大学英语(2)》第四课拓展资源
议论文
Argumentation
     议论文是非常常见的文体,是一种采取说理与论证的方法来阐明作者观点的文体。它的目的是说服读者赞成、同意某种观点并愿意为之采取行动。论点、论据和论证是议论文一般具有的三大要素。论点是作者要阐述和说明的立场和观点,一般体现在段落的主题句中;论据是作者用来证明论点的依据,即通过事实、道理和例证来证明论点;论证是用论据来证明论点的过程和方法。
  议论文写作中需要注意的事项如下。  
     (1) 论点明确。
  一篇议论文的论点是文章的灵魂,所以论点要明确,不能泛泛而谈。一篇英语文章一般只有一个主题或一个论点。论点一般出现在主题句中。所以,在写作中,主题句是作文的重点。写作时要确保文章的主题明确,前后一致,并且一个好的主题句不应该太窄,也不可以太宽泛。比如,下列的主题句都属于应该改进的主题句。
  ① There is much to say about any problem. (主题句所阐述的主题不明确)
  ② I love my dog's brown hair. (主题句所阐述的主题太窄)
  ③ One needs to know how to write a good outline. (主题句所阐述的主题太宽泛)
下面是经过改进的主题句。
  ① There is much to say about the problem of unemployment.
  ② I love my dog because her appearance, her attitude towards me, and her playful spirit.
  ③ Six steps in writing a good outline should be kept in mind.  
     (2)论据要充分。
  充分和有力的论证是使得议论文有说服力所必需的。论据一般分为事实论据和理论论据。提供论据的原则是为文章主题服务。
     (3)论证要清晰和严密。
  证明论点的过程和方法就是所谓的“论证”,是文章的主体。开展论证有各种不同的方法,下面列出的是常用的方法。
  ① 列举法(Enumeration)。一般在主题句之后,依次罗列段落指示词所表达的几个部分或几个方面,然后选用丰富的事例对所罗列的各个部分进行具体说明或解释。例如:
  This book will have a major impact on both politics and economy in China.
  In politics, ...
  In economy, ...
  ② 例证法(Exemplification)。所谓例证法就是通过列举事实来证明某观点的正确性。例证法往往是需要和其他的论证方法相结合的。在使用这种方法时,可以套用下列句型:
  We may cite a single example of ...
  We may quote a common example of ...
  To illustrate ... in question, we can cite many examples ...
  ③ 分析法(Analysis)。分析法指针对某一社会现象、某一问题找出原因或解决之道。例如针对青少年犯罪的社会现象分析原因:
  There are mainly two causes of this problem — the negative influence of mass media and young people's tendency to be rebellious.
  There are several ways to prevent the youth from committing crimes.
  ④ 比较对照法(Comparison and Contrast)。在这种主题论证方法中,作者分别列出某事物或观点的优点和缺点,在这种比较对照中得出某种结论,以支持或反对某观点或事物。在使用这种方法时,可以套用下列句型:
  By contrast, it is also important to note that ...
  Although A enjoys considerable advantage of ... it cannot compete with B in ...
  Every coin has two sides.
  Every rose has its thorns.
  Don't throw the baby away with the bath water.  
     (4) 从文章整体角度来看,要保持主题统一和结构衔接紧密(Unity & Coherence)。
  在整个文章的写作过程中,要在注意论据充分的基础上保证相关性,使得论据为证明论点服务,不跑题(digress)。另外,在论述过程中,段落之间的衔接和段落内的衔接都必须紧密。为保证这一点,可采用相应的方法,如使用并列平行形式(parallel)和使用连接词(transitional expressions)——first of all, then, finally, for instance, but, nevertheless, therefore, consequently等。

   Sample:
The Influence of Advertising
There is no agreement among people as to the issue of advertisement. Some people say that advertising misleads us. Others say that advertisements tell us about new products that may improve our lives. As to me, I am on the first side of the argument. The following examples can prove my standpoint.
  To illustrate, there are many advertisements about the same product. Every advertisement says the product is the best one. There are some advantages in their products we cannot find in others. Is it true? Which advertisement can we believe?
  As another instance, the advertisement on TV makes us pay more attention to the appearance of the products. On TV, we can see the perfect outside only. The advertisement says it is good, and then we believe it. Sometimes, we watch the advertisement on TV and then make a phone call to order the goods just because it is good-looking. When we get the commodity, we find it's a waste of money.
  If one more example is needed, I could mention an advertisement that I used to watch on TV. It's a medicine alleged to help people lose weight. Many movie stars said the medicine was so effective that they lost 3 or 4 pounds in one week after taking it. It made many women try it, but the only rewarding result was that they spent money. Can we believe in the advertisement?
  Given the examples I have just outlined, I can only say that we should pay attention to the advertisement on TV. Do not be deceived by it. Not all of them are useful to us. Please believe your own judgment.

  首先这篇文章论点明确。在第一段中先提出两种关于广告的观点,然后明确自己的观点:“As to me, I am on the first side of the argument.”。
  其次,在论证的过程中,这篇文章的论据丰富。三个例子分别从三个角度来支持自己的观点:① “To illustrate, there are many advertisements about the same product.”;② “As another instance, the advertisement on TV makes us pay more attention to the appearance of the products.”;③ “If one more example is needed, I could mention an advertisement that I used to watch on TV.”。这样的一个论证过程清晰并且严密,采用了列举和例证等论证方法,使得文章主题统一且结构衔接紧密。
  最后,文章根据前文的论证得出结论,即:“I can only say that we should pay attention to the advertisement on TV. Do not be deceived by it.”, 照应了第一段的主题。文章最后还根据自己的观点提出了应对广告的方法,即:“Do not be deceived by it. Not all of them are useful to us. Please believe your own judgment.”。 这些都使得其是一篇观点明确、论证充分、比较有说服力的议论文。

 楼主| 张老师 发表于 2019-7-26 17:40:49 | 显示全部楼层
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福师《大学英语(2)》第一课FAQ
名词性从句(一)
Nominal Clauses (Ⅰ)  
    从句法功能上划分,复合句可以分为名词性从句(即宾语从句、表语从句、主语从句、同位语从句和介词补足成分)、形容词性从句(即定语从句)和副词性分句(即状语从句)。
名词性从句能在句中起名词词组的作用,这种从句通常由从属连词that引导,也可由who, whom, whose, what, which, whoever, whatever, whichever等连接代词引导,还可由where, when, how, why等连接副词引导。

1. 名词性从句在句中作宾语
   谓语动词、介词、动词不定式、分词、动名词之后都可以有宾语从句。某些形容词之后也可以带宾语从句。
  1) 由that引导的宾语从句
She said (that) she would return the book soon.  她说她很快就会还书。
She said (that) she would come.  她说她要来。
We never doubt that he is honest.   我们从没有怀疑他的诚实。
She suggested that he do it at once.   她建议他马上做。
Hearing that his son was badly wounded, he hurried to the hospital to see him. 听说儿子受了重伤,他急忙赶到医院去看望他。
I am sure that she will like this book.   我确信她会喜欢这本书的。
We are glad that so many old friends will attend our tea party. 我们非常高兴这么多老朋友要来参加我们的茶话会。
I don't know anything about him except that he lives next door.   我只知道他住在隔壁。
  2) 由whether或if 引导的宾语从句
   whether 可以连接所有的名词性从句,而if只能引导宾语从句或不在句首的主语从句;whether 可以作介词宾语,而if不能;whether引导的名词性从句可以放在句首,而if引导的从句只能放在主句谓语动词之后;连接宾语从句时,whether和if可以互换;whether后可以接动词不定式, if则不能。例如:
Whether she comes or not makes no difference.  她来不来没有关系(不能用if)。
I don't know whether to lend him the money.  我不知道是否该借钱给他。
I wonder whether/if he'll agree with me.  我不知道他是否会同意我的意见。
I want to know whether/if you can answer the question.  我不知道你能否回答这个问题。
I don't know whether/if he will come back this evening.  我不知道他今晚是否回来。
Do you know whether/if any decision has been arrived at?   你知道有任何决定下来了吗?
  3) 由连接代词或连接副词引导的宾语从句
   对于由连接代词或连接副词引导的宾语从句,要注意要使用陈述句的语序。例如:
I can't imagine what made him act like that.   我不能想像是什么让他那样的。
Tell me what you have done.  告诉我你干了什么。
Can you tell us who is responsible for the fire?   你能告诉我们谁为这场火灾负责吗?
I can guess who/whom you have talked with.   我可以猜出谁和你谈话了。
I know whose brother he is.   我知道他是谁的兄弟。
Please explain why this is impossible.   请解释为什么这个不可能。
I can not understand why he said that again.   我不明白他为什么又说那件事了。
Nobody can tell when she will arrive.  没人知道她什么时候会来。
We have to decide when we'll set off.  我们必须决定什么时候动身。
Do you know which team lost in the game?  你知道哪个队在比赛中输了吗?
I haven't decided yet which would be the best thing to do.   我还没决定最好做什么。
Eat whichever one you like and leave the others for whoever comes in late.   吃任何一个你喜欢的,把其他的留给后来的人。
He wants to know where we'll spend the holiday.   他想知道我们在哪儿度假。
She asked me where I was off to.   她问我要去哪里。
I wonder how he got so much money.   我想知道他是怎么搞到那么多钱的。
I wondered how he could make such rapid progress in his study of French.   我在想他怎样在法语学习中取得了这么大的进步。

2. 名词性从句在句中作表语
   从句在句中作表语时,它位于主句中连系动词之后。需要注意的是,引导表语从句的从属连词that不能被省略。例如:
The fact is that he didn't notice the car until too late.  事实是他没有来得及注意那辆车。
The question is why he likes the place so much.  问题是他为什么那么喜欢这个地方。
The problem is not who will go but who will stay.   问题不是谁会走而是谁会留。
The fact is that we're behind the others.   事实是我们已经落后于别人了。
The question is whether it is worth reading. 问题是它是否值得一读。
He looks as if he knew nothing about it.   他看起来好像对这件事一无所知。
The problem is who'll be in charge of the class.   问题是谁来负责这个班。
That's what we want to do.  这正是我们想做的。  
The question is which team will play in the game.  问题是哪个队将参加这场比赛。
That was when he joined the army.  那是他参军的时候。
This was where I first met him.  这是我第一次见到他的地方。
That was how she finished her education.  那就是她怎样完成学业的。
This is why Tom cried.  这就是为什么汤姆哭的原因。

 楼主| 张老师 发表于 2019-7-26 17:41:02 | 显示全部楼层
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福师《大学英语(2)》第五课拓展资源
图表式作文
Diagram Report
     图表式作文要求根据所给的图表、数据及标题进行分析、研究,阅读其中的文字和说明,弄清各种信息之间的关系,提炼和确定文章的中心思想,然后进行分析、概括和归纳,并得出令人信服的结论。图表式作文多以说明文为主。
     1.图表式作文的常见形式
  (1)表格(table):以表格的形式将统计的数据或被说明的事物直接地体现出来,即统计表。
  (2)图形表:包括曲线图(line graph)、饼状图(pie chart)和条形图(bar chart)。
  曲线图是以曲线形式表示数据变化;条形图也叫做柱状图,是以条形方式表示数据的大小或数量之间的差异;饼状图也叫做圆形图,是以圆内扇形的大小表示内部总体结构的变化。
     2.图表式作文的写作步骤
   (1)开门见山地点明图表所反映的主题。
  经常使用的词汇有:table,chart,figure,graph,describe,tell,show,represent等。
  (2)分析数据间的主要差异及趋势,然后描写。
  在描写数据间变化及总趋势特征时,可采用分类式或对比式以支持主题,并阐明必要的理由,但要注意层次清楚。经常使用的词汇有:rise,drop,reduce,increase,decrease,fall,while,but,on the contrary,however,compare ... to/with ...,in contrast to,as ... as,the same as,similar to,different from,difference between,among,more than,less than等。
  (3)归纳总结或发表评论。(有时这一步可省略。)
  经常使用的词汇有:in a word,in short,generally speaking,It’s clear from the chart that ...,We can draw the conclusion that ...,We can learn/know ... 等。
     3.图表式作文的写作要点
   (1)仔细研究题目及提示信息,认清图表中的数字、线条、阴影等部分的变化趋势和走向,抓住其主要特点,然后根据图表所显示的中心信息确定内容层次及主题句。
  (2)仔细研究图表所给出的大量信息,从中选取最重要、最有代表性的信息,然后根据全文的主旨去组织运用所获取的关键信息。切忌简单地罗列图表所给出的信息。
  (3)图表作文一般采用的时态为一般现在时,但如果图表中给出了具体的时间供参照,则应对时态进行相应的调整。
  (4)了解不同图表在写作方面的不同特点。
  ① 表格可以表示多种事物的相互关系,所以要对表格中所给出的大量数字进行比较分析,从中找出其变化规律。
  ② 曲线图常表示事物的变化趋势,所以应认真观察坐标系所显示的数据信息,并且密切注意交汇在坐标横轴和纵轴上的数字及单位。
  ③ 条形图用来表示各种事物的变化情况及相互关系,所以要通过宽度相等的条形的高度或长度差别来判断事物的动态发展趋势,同时要密切关注坐标线上的刻度单位及图表旁边的提示说明与文字。
  ④ 饼状图表示各事物在总体中所占的比例及相互关系,要求准确理解并阐述一个被分割成大小不等切片的饼状图所传达的信息,所以应清楚掌握部分与整体、部分与部分之间的相互关系。这种关系通常是以百分比的形式给出的。
  (5)列出各段主题句。在写作时可以根据所给提纲或已知信息列出每段的主题句,为全文的展开做好铺垫。然后围绕主题句完成段落的展开,尽量做到主题明确、条理清楚、文字简练。
  (6)检查与修改。对图表作文的检查与修改应着重看文章中所列举的信息是否与图表所显示的信息一致,资料是否恰当。
     4.图表式作文常用的句型
  As can be seen from/in the chart/diagram/table/graph ... 从表格或图形中我们可以看到……
  The table shows a three times increase over that of last year. 表格显示比去年上升了3倍。
  According to/As is shown in Table/Figure/Chart ... 如表格或图表中显示……
  The number is 5 times as much as that of ... 此数字是……的5倍。
  It has increased by three times as compared with that of ... 同……相比,增长了3倍。
  It can be seen from the chart/diagram/table/graph/figures/statistics that ...
  从表格/图表/数据中我们可以看到……
  From the table/figures/data/results/information above, it can/may be seen/concluded/shown/estimated/calculated/ inferred that ...
  从以上的表格/图表/数据/结果/信息中,我们可以看到/总结/预测/计算/得出……
  A has the highest sales figure in the three departments, followed by B and C.
  在3个部门中,A的销售额最高,其次是B和C。
  The figure of A is about twice as much as that of B.
  A的数字是B的两倍。
  The rise lasted for two weeks and then began to level off in August.
  上升两个星期后,8月份开始平稳。
  It accounts for 30% of the total population.
  它占到总人口的30%。
  The number of students has reached 500, indicating a rise of 20%, compared with last semester.
  学生人数达到500人, 与上个学期相比上升了20%。
  It picked up speed at the end of this month.
  这个月底加快了速度。
  The pie charts show the changes on...in some place in 2000.
  此饼状图显示了2000年一些地方……的变化。
  From this year on, there was a gradual declined reduction in the ..., reaching a figure of ...
  从这年起,……逐渐下降至……
  There are a lot of similarities/differences between ... and ...
  ……与……之间有许多相似(不同)之处。
  It can be drawn from the chart that the proportions of A and B are going down, though the falling level of the latter is a lot lower/higher than that of the former.
  尽管B的下降速度比A要慢/快,从表中我们可以看到A和B的比例都在下降。
  The increase/decrease is more noticeable during the second half of the 5-year period.
  在5年期限的后半段,增长/降低比较明显。
  It falls from 50% in 2000 to 30% in 2004,and then the trend reverse, finishing at 58% in 2005.
  从2000年的50%降到2004年的30%,然后形势逆转,2005年达到了58%。
  The table shows the changes in the number of ... over the period from ... to ...
  该表格描述了在……年至……年间……数量的变化。
  As can be seen from the graph, the two curves show the fluctuation of ...
  如图所示,两条曲线描述了……的波动情况。
Sample 1
The table shows the results of a survey in 2004 which asked undergraduate and postgraduate students of a UK university whether they were satisfied with the facilities at the university. Write a report describing the information shown below.

Area        Students        Very satisfied         Quite satisfied        Not at all satisfied
Study facilities         Postgraduate students        65%        20%        15%
        Undergraduate students        67%        17%        16%
University cafeteria         Postgraduate students        52%        32%        16%
        Undergraduate students        70%        27%        3%
Social facilities        Postgraduate students        80%        15%        5%
        Undergraduate students        45%        25%        30%

From the table, we can see different attitudes among undergraduate and postgraduate students towards the facilities of a UK college in 2004.
  When being asked about the satisfaction of study facilities, two groups of students two groups of students (both graduate and undergraduate) (both graduate and undergraduate) seemed to have the same opinion. About 85% of both students expressed their satisfaction, and only around 15% of the students do not feel satisfied at all.
  However, when it came to questions about the school cafeteria and social facilities, post graduate students and undergraduates tend to hold different ideas. The majority of university undergraduates (97%) liked the college canteen, while only 84% of postgraduates feel the same way. About 16% of postgraduates, 13% higher than their university counterparts, showed their reluctance. On the contrary, undergraduates appeared to have more complaints on social facilities, with 30% students announcing their dissatisfaction, while the proportion of criticism within postgraduate students is only 5%.
Overall speaking, most of the UK college students had a high comment on the campus appliance, yet undergraduates tended to be relatively harsher than postgraduate students.

Sample 2
The graph below shows the unemployment rates in the US and Japan between March 1993 and March 1999. Write a report describing the information shown below.
  
The graph here compares the unemployment rates in the US and in Japan over the past 6 years from March 1993 to March 1999.
  As we can see from the graph, during this period of time, the unemployment rate in US gradually declined, whereas that in Japan rose steadily.
  As for Japan, there was obviously a dramatic increase with the unemployment rate between 1993 and 1994, rising from about 2.5% to 3.75%. Then, there was a slight fluctuation in the following year of 1994. From March 1995 to the middle of 1998, there was a stable growth accompanied by occasional fluctuations. Particularly in 1998, it peaked at about 5.3% and afterwards began to drop slowly before finally ending up at 5%.
  On the other hand, the unemployment rate in US was totally different from that in Japan. As is shown from the graph, US unemployment rate fell from the original 7.0% to the final 5.1%. The lowest rate, which appeared in 1998, reached about 4.7%, which is almost equal to the highest rate in Japan. From the graph, we have learned about some information about the unemployment rates in the US and Japan between 1993 and 1999.

 楼主| 张老师 发表于 2019-7-26 17:41:20 | 显示全部楼层
张老师
2019-7-26 17:41:20 看全部
福师《大学英语(2)》第五课FAQ
虚拟语气
Subjunctive Mood
1. 英语中语气的含义和种类
   语气(mood)是一种动词形式,用以表示说话者的意图和态度。
英语中的语气有以下3种。  
  (1) 陈述语气,表示所说的话是事实。例如:
Paris is world-famous for its fashion shows and beautiful sceneries.  巴黎以时装展和美丽的风景而闻名世界。
Yesterday I went to visit my uncle who lives in the countryside.  昨天我去看望了住在乡下的叔叔。  
  (2) 祈使语气,表示所说的话是请求或命令。例如:
Don't say those rude words again!  不要再说那些脏话了!
Please help yourself with some salad and soup.  请随便吃点沙拉,喝点汤。
  (3) 虚拟语气,表示所说的话只是一种主观的愿望、假想或建议等。例如:
If I were you, I wouldn't let her go.  我要是你的话,就不会让她走。
They suggest that we go there by plane.  他们建议我们坐飞机去那儿。
I wish I hadn't told him the bad news.   我真希望当时没有告诉他那个坏消息。
2. 虚拟语气的概念及用法
     虚拟语气是一种动词形式,表示说话人的一种愿望、假设、怀疑、猜测、建议等。虚拟语气所表示的含义不是客观存在的事实。
  虚拟语气的用法可以归结为6大类型,即:普通型、wish型、省略型、“坚决要命”型、状语从句型和特殊型(包括It is time型、would rather型、含蓄型和让步型)。
  (1) 普通型虚拟语气,即以if引导的主从复合句中的虚拟语气,包括以下三种形式:
        从句        主句
与过去事实相反        had + 动词过去分词        would / should /could / might + have + 动词的过去分词
与现在事实相反        动词过去式(be动词常用were)        would / should / could / might + 动词原形
与将来事实相反        should / were to + 动词原形        would / should /could / might + 动词原形
例如:
If I were you, I would take them away. 如果我是你的话,我就会带走他们。
If I had met David, I could have told him.  如果我碰见了大卫,我就告诉他了。
If it were to rain tomorrow, the football match would be put off.   要是明天下雨,运动会就会被推迟。
  (2) wish型虚拟语气,即wish引导的宾语从句中的虚拟语气,包括以下三种形式:   
         that引导的宾语从句
与过去事实相反         had + 动词过去分词 或 could have + 动词过去分词
与现在事实相反         动词过去式(be动词常用were)
与将来事实相反         should / would / might / could + 动词原形 或 were + 动词-ing形式
例如:  
I wish she would be on my side.  我希望她能站在我一边。
I wish I had known the answer.  我希望当时就知道答案。  
I wish I were a boy.  我希望自己是个男孩。
  (3) 省略型虚拟语气。省略型虚拟语气一般分为以下两种类型。
   ① 省略非真实条件句中的if,把从句中的助动词提前,即were,should和had 。例如:
Were I a boy, I would join the army.  我要是男孩的话就去参军。
Had he taken my advice, he would have succeeded.  他当初要是听了我的建议,早就成功了。
Were it not for the expense, I would go to Britain.  要不是费用的问题,我就去英国了。
   ② 省略整个主句,常见的形式是if only 引导的从句。例如:
Look at the terrible situation I am in! If only I had followed your advice.  瞧瞧我现在的处境多糟!要是我早听你的劝告就好了。
If only he had much more money!  他要是有更多的钱就好了。
  注意:省略型虚拟语气中谓语动词的形式与普通型相同,也分为三种形式。
  (4) “坚决要命”型虚拟语气,即名词性从句(包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)中的虚拟语气。句中的动词、名词和形容词若有“坚决要命”的含义(“坚”指“坚持、建议、推荐”;“决”指“决心、决定”;“要”指“要求的、重要的、必要的”;“命”指“命令的、致命的”),则名词性从句中的谓语动词要用虚拟语气的形式,即should + 动词原形的形式(should可省略)。
   ① 主语从句通常用于“It is + 形容词 + that引导的主语从句”的结构中。要求主语从句中用虚拟语气的形容词或过去分词主要有:demanded,essential,important,necessary,ordered,required,vital,suggested(建议的),recommended,strange,advisable,anxious,appropriate,compulsory(强制的),concerned,crucial(紧要关头的),desired,desirable,eager,fitting,imperative(绝对必要的),proper,improper,impossible,obligatory(必须履行的),preferable,only just,only right,only fair,reasonable,willing,urgent等。例如:
It's necessary that we should have a walk now.  我们现在有必要出去散散步。
It's natural that she should do so.  她这样做是很自然的。
It's important that we should take good care of the patient.  重要的是我们要照顾好病人。
It will be desired that she should finish her homework this afternoon.  最好是她今天下午就能写完作业。
   ② 要求宾语从句中用虚拟语气的动词主要有:advise,suggest(建议),command,decide,demand,desire,insist,order,require,recommend,prefer,move(提议),propose,ask(请求),oblige,request,beg,determine,resolve,intend,promise,arrange,deserve(值得,应受)等。例如:
The teacher suggested that we(should)clean the blackboard after class.  老师建议我们课后把黑板擦了。
He ordered that the students (should) wash the clothes every week by themselves.  他要求学生每周都要自己洗衣服。
He insisted that all of us (should) be there on time by any means.  他坚持要我们大家想尽办法按时去那儿。
   ③ 要求表语从句和同位语从句中用虚拟语气的名词主要有:advice,command,demand,agreement,decision,decree(政令),plan,preference,resolution,urge,wish,desire,importance,motion(提议),necessity,order,proposal,recommendation,request,requirement,suggestion(建议),law,idea等。例如:
His suggestion that we(should)go to Shanghai is wonderful.  他建议我们去上海,这个建议真好。
My idea is that everyone(should)pay 100 dollars.  我的意见是每个人付100美元。
  (5) 状语从句型虚拟语气。状语从句型虚拟语气主要有以下两种类型。
   ① as if(as though)引导的让步状语从句,其虚拟语气的谓语动词只有两种形式:如果主句的谓语动词是现在时,则从句中的谓语动词用过去时;如果主句的谓语动词是过去时,则从句中的谓语动词用过去完成时。例如:
He did it as if he had been an expert.  他那样做,好像自己就是专家一样。
She speaks to us as if she were there.  她给我们讲的好像她去过那儿。
   ② lest(唯恐),in case(万一),for fear that(生怕,以免)引导的目的状语从句,其虚拟语气的谓语动词形式为:may/might/can/could/should + 动词原形。例如:
I got up early lest I(should)miss the train.  我早起以免错过了火车。
We talked in a low voice lest we should wake the baby up.  我们小声说话以免吵醒婴儿。
Take the raincoat in case it might rain.  带着雨衣,以防下雨。
He told us to keep quiet for fear that we might disturb others.  他让我们保持安静,以免打扰别人。
  (6) 特殊型虚拟语气。特殊型虚拟语气主要分以下几类。
   ① it is time 型,即“It is(high,about)time that ...”句型。这一句型要求用虚拟语气,表示“早该做还未做”的意思,其从句谓语动词用过去时的形式,be为单数时多用was,that可省略。例如:
It's time that I picked up my daughter.  我该去接女儿了。
It's high time we were going.  我们该走了。
   ② would rather 型,指在would(had)rather,would(just)as soon,had better,would sooner后接的that 从句中谓语动词用过去时,表示当时或将来的虚拟情况,可译作“宁愿……”。例如:
I'd rather you didn't go out alone.  我宁愿你不单独出去。
I would rather Lily took that dress on.  我宁愿莉莉穿那条裙子。
   ③ 含蓄型,指if 条件句不出现,而用某些词或短语表示虚拟条件(主句不变),或靠上下文的衬托来表示虚拟条件的形式。通常由without,but for(要不是),were it not for(要是没有)连接的短语和otherwise,or(否则)作为标志。其主句的谓语动词形式与普通型虚拟语气相同,也分为三种形式。例如:
But for the storm we would have had a nice holiday.  要不是因为暴风雨,我们的假日一定过得很惬意。
Without the sun, nothing would grow.  如果没有太阳,万物就不会生长。
I'm not feeling very well today; otherwise, I would do it myself.  今天我身体不太舒服,否则这事我就亲自去做了。
   ④ 让步型,即表示假设情况的让步状语从句中的虚拟语气,具体句型为“be it good or bad”。这是倒装省略结构,补全省略部分应为 “whether it is good or bad ... ”。倒装时要把系动词提前,并把is还原为原形形式be表示虚拟,省略whether。例如:
Be it good or bad, she will leave us for Canada tomorrow.  无论怎样,她明天就离开我们去加拿大了。
Be it good or bad, I shall finish the assignment by myself.  无论怎样,我都要自己完成作业。
3. 虚拟语气应注意的几个问题
   (1)有时表示虚拟语气的条件从句或者主句都可以省略,而只剩下一个主句或者一个条件从句。例如:
If I had time.  我要有时间该多好啊。
She should have come to the party.  她应该来参加聚会。
   (2)在虚拟语气中,当条件从句和主句所表示的时间不一致时,虚拟语气的形式应作相应的调整。也就是说,在虚拟语气中,条件从句的动词可以和主句的动词时态不一致。例如:
If they had studied hard, they could do it easily now.  如果他们以前努力学习的话,现在干得就会容易些。
If he had not taken my advice, he wouldn't do it much better like this.  如果他当初不听取我的建议,他现在就不会干得这样好。
   (3)在一般情况下,虚拟语气中be动词的过去式为were,但经常会用was来替代。有时was出现的可能性会大于were。  


 楼主| 张老师 发表于 2019-7-26 17:41:32 | 显示全部楼层
张老师
2019-7-26 17:41:32 看全部
福师《大学英语(2)》第四课FAQ
状语从句
Adverbial Clause
状语从句(又称副词从句)在句子中起状语作用,修饰主句的动词、形容词、副词或整句。状语从句由从属连词引导,位置灵活,可以放置句首(从句后需要用逗号与主句隔开)、句中(从句前后都用逗号)或者句尾(从句前不需要用逗号)。
状语从句可以分为以下几种类型。
1. 时间状语从句
时间状语从句可以由下列连词引导:when,whenever,while,as,before,after,since,now that,until,once,the moment,immediately,no sooner...than,the second,instantly, hardly等。例如:
When my father came home yesterday, I was watching NBA games.  当父亲回家的时候,我在看NBA球赛。
When I was ten, I began to learn to play basketball.  我十岁的时候开始学习打篮球。
While he is listening to a song, he always sings along.  当他听歌的时候,他总是会随着一起唱。
You will grow taller as you grow older.   随着你长大,你也会长高。
以上4个句子中的状语从句均表示某一时刻或者某时间段。
注意:
(1)当使用连接词when表示“……时候”时,它所引导的从句中谓语动词用一般现在时或者一般过去时,不能用完成时态。
(2)when,while和as都引导表示时间的状语从句,它们的区别在于动作发生的时间顺序。用when时,从句的动作可以与主句的动作同时发生或先于主句的动作发生;用as时从句和主句的动作同时发生;用while时从句和主句的动作同时发生,也可表示持续一段时间。例如:
I didn't know my step-father before I was brought to this family.  在我被带到这个家庭之前,我不认识继父。
After he said goodbye, he left.  他说完再见后离开了。
After you consult with your colleagues, please let me know your decision.  你和你同事商量完以后,请告诉我你们的决定。
以上3个句子中的状语从句表示发生的动作在时间上的相对顺序。
Whenever they are free, they play basketball.  他们一有时间就打篮球。
Her mother gets angry every time that she arrives late.  每次她一来迟,她母亲就会生气。
They laughed at each other as often as they met.   他们每次见面都会互相嘲笑一番。
以上3个句子中的状语从句表示动作发生的频繁程度。
I'll tell him the story as soon as I see him.  我一见到他就会告诉他这个故事。
The instant the boy saw his mother, he threw himself into her arms.  这个小男孩一见到他的母亲就扑进她的怀里。
No sooner had he entered the stadium than he started to played basketball.   他一进入体育场就开始打篮球。
Hardly had he finished the examination when the bell rang.   他刚做完试卷就响铃了。
以上4个句子中的状语从句表示动作发生的衔接程度,即“一……就……”,但某些连接词需要句子倒装。
She didn't have her lunch until she had finished her task.  她一直到完成任务才吃午饭。
Until I met him, I had never known what love is.  我直到遇见他才知道什么是爱。
Not until I shouted at the top of my voice did he turn his head.   直到我大声喊他,他才转过头来。
以上3个句子中的状语从句表示动作“直到……才”发生。
2. 地点状语从句
地点状语从句通常由连词where,wherever或者副词anywhere,everywhere来引导。例如:
Where there is a will, there is a way.  有志者,事竟成。
Wherever you are, you should work hard.  不管你在哪儿,都要努力工作。
Readers should put the book they had finished where it was.   读者应该把看完的书放回原处。
3. 原因状语从句
原因状语从句通常由because,since,as,seeing that,now that等连词引导。例如:
She didn't come to school because she was ill yesterday.  她没来上学是因为她昨天生病了。
Since you are not busy today, you'd better help me with the garden work.  既然你今天不忙,那你最好帮我干花园里的活。
As it is raining, you'd better take a taxi.  下雨了,你最好打出租车。
Seeing (that) he was better, they didn't send for the doctor.   看到他好多了,他们就没有请医生来。
Now that everybody is here, let's begin our meeting. 既然人都来了,那咱们开会吧。
4. 结果状语从句
结果状语从句通常由so that,so ... that,that等连接词引导。例如:
The sound is so weak that you cannot hear it.  声音弱得你听不见。
He bought a new car so that he was never late afterwards.  他买了一辆新车,从此以后就再也没迟到过。
He is such a good person that everyone likes him.  他是一个好人,所以每个人都喜欢他。
Is she really disabled that she should not touch it?  她真的残疾得不能动那东西了吗?
5. 目的状语从句
引导目的状语从句的连接词有:so,so that,in order that,for fear that,lest等。例如:
She worked hard so that she could earn the bonus.  她努力工作为的是能获得奖金。
All the students studied hard lest they should fail the examinations this term.  所有的学生都努力学习,以防这学期考试过不了关。
I came so early as to catch the first train.  我来得很早,以便能赶上头班火车。
He is working hard for fear that he should fail.  他努力学习,以免考试不及格。
6. 条件状语从句
表示条件的状语从句可以由 if,unless,suppose,supposing,in case,so far as,provided等词引导。
(1) 真实条件状语从句所表示的条件是真实的、有可能实现的。常用的句型为:
If+ 一般现在时,+一般将来时
If+一般现在时,+一般现在时
(2)非真实条件状语从句所表示的条件与事实相反,或没有实现的可能性。常用的句型为:
If+动词过去式,+would(should, could, might)+动词原形
If+had+过去分词,+would(should, could, might)+have+过去分词
If it rains, the meeting will take place indoors.  如果下雨,会议将在室内进行。
Suppose all your money was stolen, how would you survive in a strange city?  假设你的钱都被偷了,你如何在一个陌生的城市生存?
If you had come a few minutes earlier, you would have met him. (非真实条件句)  如果你早来几分钟就碰到他了。
If you had not helped me, I should have failed. (非真实条件句)  要是你不帮助我,我早就失败了。
I shall give you my dictionary provided you return it tomorrow. 倘若你明天能还给我,我就把词典借给你。
7. 让步状语从句
让步状语从句由下列连接词引导:although,though,even if,while,no matter, whoever,whatever,while,whether ... or,however,granting that等。例如:
Though it was very late, he went on working.  虽然很晚了,他还继续工作。
Although he married a nice girl, he is (still, yet, nevertheless) unhappy.  尽管他和一位很好的姑娘结了婚,但他仍然不快乐。
注意:在让步状语从句中,用although或者though引导时,句中不能再出现but,可以用yet或者still等。
While he is very young, he is an old hand in this field.  虽然他非常年轻,但已经是这个领域里的老手了。
Granted that they weren't doing it in the right way, you weren't right in taking everything on yourself.  就算他们做事的方式不对,你包办代替也不对。
8. 方式状语从句
方式状语从句的引导连接词有as,as if,as though等。例如:
I have changed the plan as you instructed.  我已经按你的建议对计划做了修改。
She walks as her mother does.  她像她妈妈那样走路。
He works with great enthusiasm as though he never knew fatigue.  他工作热情很高,好像从不知道疲倦似的。
9. 比较状语从句
比较状语从句由as ... as,not as ... as,than等连接。例如:
He worked as fast as a skilled worker.  他干活像一个熟练工人一样快。
Marry works more carefully than Tom.  玛莉比汤姆工作更细心。

 楼主| 张老师 发表于 2019-7-26 17:41:44 | 显示全部楼层
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福师《大学英语(2)》第三课FAQ
定语从句
Attributive Clause
   定语从句也称为关系从句或形容词性从句,由关系代词who,whom,whose,which,that或关系副词as,when,where,why等引导。关系词除了起引导作用外,还在从句中指代前面的先行词,并在从句中担任一定的成分。例如:
The car which was stolen has been found.  被盗的汽车已经找到了。(which指代先行词car,在从句中作主语)
The house whose windows are broken is empty.  窗子破烂不堪的那所房子是空的。(whose是所有格,在从句中作定语)
I shall never forget the day when I entered the university.  我永远不会忘记上大学的那一天。(when指代先行词day,在从句中作时间状语)
1. 限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句
定语从句就其与先行词的关系而言,可分为限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句。限定性定语从句和先行词之间没有逗号,对先行词起修饰限制作用;而非限定性定语从句和先行词之间有逗号分开,对先行词进行补充说明,相当于并列句。例如:
He is the man who has strong personality.  他是个个性很强的人。(限定性定语从句)
My mother, who works abroad, is coming next week.  我母亲在国外工作,下周她就回来了。(非限定性定语从句)
注意:
  (1) 非限定性定语从句不能用that引导,一般用which,as或who(指人)引导。用which或as引导时,既可以修饰主句的部分内容,也可修饰主句的全部内容。例如:
   He spoke confidently, which impressed me most.  他说话非常自信,这一点给我留下了深刻的印象。(which指代整个主句,在从句中作主语)
  (2) as引导的非限定性定语从句既可放在主句之前,也可以放在主句之后,但which或who引导的非限定性定语从句不能放在主句之前。例如:
   As we all know, the moon is a satellite of the earth.  众所周知,月亮是地球的一颗卫星。
   The large area is covered with thick snow, which affects people's life greatly.  大片的区域都覆盖着厚厚的白雪,这大大影响了人们的生活。
  (3) 在限定性定语从句中,关系代词作宾语时可以省略;但在非限定性定语从句中,关系代词作宾语时不能省略。例如:
   The film (which) I saw last night is about a young teacher.  我昨晚看的那部电影是关于一名年轻教师的。(which可以省去)
   She introduced me to her husband, whom I hadn't met before.  她把我介绍给她丈夫,这人我以前从没见过。(whom不能省去)
2. 通常只用关系代词that而不用which,who或whom的几种情况
  (1) 当先行词是all,everything,nothing,something,anything,little,much,none,few等时,例如:
All that you want is here.  你想要的一切都在这儿。
  (2) 当先行词被all,no,some,any,every,a few,a little,much,only,very等修饰时。例如:
There is no person that doesn't make mistakes.  任何人都会犯错误。
  (3) 当先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时。例如:
This is the best film that I have ever seen.   这是我看过的最好的一部电影。
  (4) 当出现两个或两个以上的先行词,并同时兼指人或物时。例如:
We are talking about the people and countries that we have visited.   我们正在谈论我们拜访过的人们及参观过的国家。
  (5) 当主句是以which或who开头的特殊疑问句时。例如:
Who is the person that is standing over there?   站在那儿的那个人是谁?
  (6) 当定语从句为there be句型时,关系代词只能用that,但经常可以省略。例如:
I know the difference (that) there is between you.   我知道你们之间的不同。
  (7) 当关系代词在从句中作表语时,常用that。例如:
He does not seem to be the man that he was.   他似乎和过去不一样了。
3. 与其他词连用引导的定语从句
as引导定语从句时,可指人也可指物,通常与the same,such,so等连用,形式为:the same ... as,such ... as,as ... as,so ... as。as在定语从句中可作主语、宾语、表语等。例如:
She knew he felt just the same as she did.  她知道他的感觉与她自己的一样。(as代替事,作宾语)
I lend you such books as will interest you.  我借给你你会感兴趣的书。(as代替物,作主语)
注意:the same ... as和the same ... that的用法不同。as引导的定语从句表示其内容与主句所讲的事物“相似”,指同类事物;that引导的定语从句表示其内容与主句所讲的事物是“同一个”,指同一事物。例如:
This is the same pen as I lost yesterday.   这和我昨天丢的笔一样。(类似的笔)
This is the same pen that I lost yesterday. 这支笔就是我昨天丢的那支。(同一支笔)
4. “介词 + 关系代词”引导的定语从句
在“介词 + which/whom”结构中,介词的选择取决于以下3种情况。
(1) 定语从句中谓语动词与表语的搭配,例如:
This is the college in which I am studying.  这就是我正在学习的大学。
He is the man about whom we are talking.  他就是我们正在谈论的那个人。
(2) 先行词与介词的习惯搭配,例如:
The speed at which the machine operates is known on the meter.   机器运行的速度可以从仪表上读出来。
(3) 当定语从句为最高级时只能用of which,否则用其他介词,例如:
I have five dictionaries of which Longman Dictionary is the best.   我有五本词典,其中《朗文词典》最好。
I have five dictionaries among which Longman Dictionary is published in UK.   我有五本词典,其中《朗文词典》是英国出版的。
注意:不可拆分的动词短语介词不能提前,如put up with;有的短语可能有不同的介词搭配,此时需要根据上下文来确定,如be familiar with/to,compare with/to等。
有时为表意清楚,还可以在关系副词where或when前加介词from,to等。例如:
China is the birthplace of kites, from where kite flying spread to Japan, Thailand and India.  风筝源于中国,并由此传到日本、泰国和印度。

 楼主| 张老师 发表于 2019-7-26 17:41:58 | 显示全部楼层
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福师《大学英语(2)》第七课拓展资源
简 历
Resume
     书写简历是求职过程中的第一步,也是相当关键的一步。用人单位通过简历上的信息,对应聘者进行初步的资格筛选。所以,一份好的简历可以起到抛砖引玉的作用。下面将具体介绍英文简历的写法。
     
简历的主要组成部分如下。
  (1)首先是姓名、地址、联系方式,比如电话或电子邮箱等。姓名一般采用居中的方式,其他内容则居左。
  (2)接着要写求职意向(Objective)。这一栏的内容非常重要。很多公司主要看这一项的内容是否跟它们所要求的一致或者接近。
  (3)第三部分为个人资料(Personal Data),包括求职者的姓名、性别、出生年月等,与中文简历大体一致。
  (4)第四部分为教育背景(Education)。必须注意的是,在英文简历中,求职者受教育的时间排列顺序与中文简历中的时间排列顺序正好相反,即从求职者的最高教育层次写起,至于低至何时,则无具体规定,可根据个人实际情况安排。另外,大多数外企对英语(或其他语种)及计算机水平都有一定的要求,个人的语言水平和计算机能力应该在此单列说明。
  (5)第五部分为工作经验(Working Experience)。这部分在时间排列顺序上也遵循由后至前这一规则,即从当前的工作岗位写起,直至求职者的第一个工作岗位为止。求职者要将单位的名称、自身的职位和技能写清楚。另外,欧美人很重视求职者的实际工作经验,所以在此部分可提及自己“工作时接受的培训”(Job Training)。
  (6)第六部分为所获奖励和作品(Awards & Publications)。即将自己所获奖项及发表过的作品列举一二,这可以很好地证实自己的工作能力和取得的成绩。
  (7)第七部分为自己感兴趣的领域(Interest)。即将自己的工作意愿展示给雇主,这对于大多数求职者(尤其是搞技术或研究工作的求职者)必不可少。同时,随着分工越来越细,将工作能力与工作兴趣结合起来不仅是求职者的意愿,对雇主来讲,也同样具有积极的意义。

写简历应注意避免以下几点。
  (1)忌长句:没有人愿意看太冗长的句子,而且要切记YRIS(Your resume is scanned,not read)原则,雇主只是在扫描你的简历。
  (2)忌缩写:因为外行人往往很难看懂,不要想当然地认为这是人所皆知的事情。
  (3)忌“I”:因为正规简历多用点句,以动词开头,是没有“我”的。当然若在公司简介中一定要用到一两次,也不是完全不可以。
  (4)忌不利因素:写简历的原则是不要撒谎,但不写不等于骗人,应该做到扬长避短。
  
   Sample 1
Resume
Zheng Yan
Room 212 Building 343
Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084
Tel:(010) 6277****   Email:[email protected]
Objective
To obtain a challenging position as a software engineer with an emphasis in software design and development
Education
1997.9-2000.6 Dept.of Automation, Graduate School of Tsinghua University, M.E.
1993.9-1997.7 Dept.of Automation, Beijing Institute of Technology, B.E.
Main Academic Courses
Mathematics
Advanced Mathematics    Probability and Statistics   Linear Algebra
Engineering Mathematics  Numerical Algorithm      Operational Algorithm
Functional Analysis    Linear and Nonlinear Programming
Electronics and Computer
Circuit Principal     Data Structures        Digital Electronics
Artificial Intelligence  Computer Local Area Network
Computer Abilities
Skilled in use of MS Frontpage, Win 95/NT, Sun, Javabeans, HTML, CGI, JavaScript, Perl, Visual Interdev, Distributed Objects, CORBA, C, C++, Project 98, Office 97, Rational Requisite Pro, Process, Pascal, PL/I and SQL software
English Skills
Have a good command of both spoken and written English. Passed CET-6. TOEFL: 623. GRE: 2213
Scholarships and Awards
●1999.3  Guanghua First-class Scholarship for Graduate
●1998.11  Metal Machining Practice Award
●1997.4  Academic Progress Award
Qualifications
●General business knowledge relating to financial, healthcare
●Have a passion for the Internet, and an abundance of common sense

Sample 2
RESUME
Personal Information
  Family Name: Li           Given Name: Kai
  Date of Birth: Dec. 27, 1987         Place of Birth: Beijing
  Sex: Male               Marital Status: Single
  Telephone: 010-8276****
  E-mail: [email protected]
Practical Experiences
  2007/3-2008/5    Chairman of Sharon English Club of BSC
  2006/9-2008/3    Journalist of the College of BSC
  2007/9-2007/11    Teaching assistant of Madame Sharon Crain
  2006/9-2007/3    Chief Staff of Learning Department of Sharon English Club
  2006/7        Member of the Summer Social Practice Team
  2006/3        One of Administrators of Digtial-History.Net
Awards
  Dream Maker Award by Madame Sharon Crain, announced by the President of BSC
  Pioneer in Campus Culture Building by Students Affairs Division of BSC
  Pioneer in Learning by Students Affairs Division of BSC
  Champion of Multimedia Courseware Competition by Students Affairs Division of BSC
  Member of Outstanding Summer Vacation Social Practice Team of Shanxi Province by Youth League of Shanxi Province
  Star of Knowledge by Youth League Committee of BSC
  Champion of English Speech Contest by Sharon English Club
Skills & Certifications
  CET-6 with a score 550
  Very fluent spoken English and standard accent of Mandarin
  Good understanding & communication skills
  An excellent photographer with more than 10,000 pictures taken
  A good journalist with more than 100 reports published
  Experienced in organizing and running associations

 楼主| 张老师 发表于 2019-7-26 17:42:15 | 显示全部楼层
张老师
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福师《大学英语(2)》第七课FAQ
比较级
Comparatives
     绝大多数的形容词和副词有三种形式:原级、比较级和最高级, 以表示形容词或副词所说明的性质在程度上的不同。  
     形容词的原级: 形容词的原级形式就是词典中出现的形容词的原形, 例如poor,tall,great,glad,bad 等。
     形容词的比较级和最高级: 形容词的比较级和最高级形式是在形容词原级形式的基础上变化的,分为规则变化和不规则变化。
规则变化如下:
(1) 单音节形容词的比较级和最高级形式是在词尾加-er 和-est 构成。 例如:
great (原级)  greater(比较级)  greatest(最高级)

(2) 以-e 结尾的单音节形容词的比较级和最高级是在词尾加-r 和-st 构成。 例如:
wide (原级)  wider(比较级)  widest(最高级)

(3) 少数以-y, -er, -ow, -ble结尾的双音节形容词的比较级和最高级是在词尾加-er 和-est 构成。例如:
clever(原级)  cleverer(比较级)  cleverest(最高级)

(4) 以-y 结尾,但-y 前是辅音字母的形容词的比较级和最高级是把-y 去掉,加上-ier 和-iest 构成。例如:
happy (原形)  happier(比较级)  happiest(最高级)

(5) 以一个辅音字母结尾且其前面的元音字母发短元音的形容词的比较级和最高级是双写该辅音字母,然后再加-er和-est。 例如:
big (原级)  bigger(比较级)  biggest(最高级)

(6) 双音节和多音节形容词的比较级和最高级需在形容词前面加more 和 most来构成。 例如:
beautiful (原级)  more beautiful(比较级)  most beautiful(最高级)
difficult (原级)  more difficult(比较级)  most difficult(最高级)

    副词的比较级和最高级的构成与形容词的比较级和最高级基本相似。例如:
fast(原级)  faster(比较级)    fastest(最高级)
clearly(原级)  more clearly(比较级)  most clearly(最高级)

    常用的不规则变化的形容词或副词的比较级和最高级如下:
原级——比较级——最高级
good——better——best
many——more——most
much——more——most
bad——worse——worst
well——better——best
far——farther, further——farthest, furthest
    注意:形容词前如加 less 和 least 则表示“较不”和“最不”,例如:
   important (重要)  less important (较不重要)  least important (最不重要)

   常见的比较级用法可以归纳如下:
(1) “as+adj./adv.+as或not so(as)+adj./adv.+as”句型。该句型常用来描述两个比较对象在程度上的相似或不同(即平时说的“等级比较和不等级比较”)。例如:  
My computer is not so(as) expensive as yours.  我的电脑不如你的贵。

(2) “as many/few+可数名词复数+as”或“as much/little+不可数名词+as”句型。前者描述数目上的接近,后者描述量的相近。例如:   
You may borrow as many books as you can.  你能借多少书就借多少。  
“Drink as much water as you can.”the doctor said to him.  医生对他说道:“你要尽可能地多喝些水。”
  
(3) “主语+比较级+than any other ...”句型。该句型中主语所描述的事物比其他任何一个都……,即比较级形式表示最高级含义。例如:  
Li Ming is much cleverer than any other student in their class.  李明是他们班中最聪明的学生。  
注意:若比较范围不同,than后应用“any+可数名词的复数形式+其他”。例如:  
China is larger that any countries in Africa.  中国比非洲的任何国家都大。  

(4) 诸如not, never之类的否定词与形容词或副词的比较级连用,表示最高级含义,意为“再没有比……更……的了”。例如:  
It is not a better idea.  这是再好不过的一个办法了。  
“It can’t be worse.  没有比这个更糟的了。  

(5) “形容词+to”结构也可表示比较含义。例如:
This kind of car is superior in quality to that.  这种汽车的质量比那一种好得多。(superior to意为“优于,胜过”)  
Li Ping is three years senior to Liu Gang.  李平比刘刚大三岁。(senior to意为“年长于,资格老于,地位高于”)  

(6) “no+比较级+than”结构表示对两个比较对象都进行否定(可由“neither ... nor ...”结构来改写)。例如:
I’m no more foolish than you.  我们俩都不傻。(相当于“Neither I nor you is foolish.”)

(7) “not+比较级+than”结构表示在程度上前者不如后者。例如:
This book is not more interesting than that one.  这本书不如那本书有趣。(相当于“The book is less interesting than that one.”)

(8) “形容词比较级+than+形容词”结构,意为“与其……,倒不如……”。例如:
Jack is more diligent than clever.  与其说杰克聪明,倒不如说他学习用功。

(9) “would rather ... than”、 “prefer ... to ...”和 “prefer to do ... rather than ...”这三个句型表示“宁愿……而不愿……,喜欢……胜过……,宁愿做……而不愿做……”的含义,虽无比较级形式,但表示比较级含义。例如:
She would rather die than give in.  她宁死不屈。
He preferred to go out rather than stay home.  他宁愿出去也不愿呆在家里。

(10) “The+比较级……,the+比较级……”结构,意为“越……,越……”。例如:   
The more difficult the questions are, the less likely he is able to answer them.  问题越难,他回答出来的可能性就越小。


 楼主| 张老师 发表于 2019-7-26 17:42:23 | 显示全部楼层
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福师《大学英语(2)》第六课拓展资源
投诉信
Letter of Complaint
    
投诉信一般是针对质量低劣的产品或者服务而表达的不满和抱怨,目的是为了让对方根据所存在的问题给出合理的、所期望的解决方法。
  投诉信的结构和内容为:第一部分,说明写该信的主要意图,即提出需要解决的问题和该问题给你造成的不良影响,以及解决问题的重要性;第二部分,说明详细的情况,提出与投诉有关的重要依据,如商品的具体问题、购买日期和地点等;第三部分,提出建议,说出你所希望的解决方法和最后的结果。此外,还可以向对方建议解决问题的最后日期,并表示对所投诉问题的妥善解决充满信心。

     在写投诉信时应注意以下几个问题。
  (1)要简洁明了,诚实坦率。说明情况时,只要能够证明你对此事已做了全面的了解即可,省去不相关的细节,尽量把篇幅限制在一页之内,不要过于冗长。
  (2)语气坚定又不失礼貌,尽量避免尖锐的挑衅和责问。如果问题是针对个人的,尽量避免把锋芒对准整个公司和团体。尤其当你投诉的公司或个人与你经常打交道时,一定要讲求策略。
  (3)如果该公司屡次给你提供质量低劣的服务并拒绝改变该情况,你认为唯一的解决办法就是诉诸法律,表述你的感觉时要得体而又不失坚定。然而,除非你已决定要诉诸法律时才可以说这样的话。
  (4)如果你想要使你的投诉信更有分量,尤其是你想影响或改变某些立法式规定时,你可以让几个人和你联合签名。
  (5)写上你的联系方式(姓名、地址、电话号码和电子邮件地址等),以备对方与你磋商解决办法时使用。

     投诉信常见的表达方式如下。
  (1)Mild(温和的)complaint:
  I am writing to you in connection with/regarding ...  我写信是关于……的事。
  I am writing to you to complain about the poor service/quality ...of ...
  我给您写信是要对……低劣的服务或质量进行投诉。
  I am writing to you to express my dissatisfaction with ...
  我给您写信是为了对……表示我的不满。
  I am sorry to inform you that ... 很遗憾,我要通知您的是……
  I wish to make a complaint about ...  我想对……进行投诉。
  I am afraid I have a complaint to make about ...  我只是想对……提出投诉。
  (2)Strong(强硬的)complaint:
  I feel I must protest/complain about ...  我觉得我应该对……提出抗议或投诉。
  I feel it a must to complain about ...  我觉得我必须对……进行投诉。
  (3)Making requests(提出要求):
  I would appreciate it if you would ... 如果您能……,我将不胜感激。
  I will have to insist on a refund in full of the price/charge. 我坚持要求全额退款。
  I expect to be compensated for all the extra expenses.
  我期望能得到所有额外费用的赔偿。
  I would be very grateful if you would ... as soon as possible.
  如果您能尽快……,我将非常感激。
  I hope this situation will not occur again. 我希望这种情况不会再发生。

   Sample 1  

Dear Sir/Madam,
  I am writing to draw your attention to the most undesirable attitude and manner of a particular member of your staff. A week ago, I bought a skirt in the woman's wear department of your supermarket, but when I went back home, it simply shrank after the first-time wash. So I hurried back to your after-sale service for help.
  When I told what had happened to the girl, Miss Ann White, who was on duty at that time, and asked for refund or exchange, she was so rude on that occasion as to interrupt me continually. Later she even said my misuse caused the result and refused to listen to me any longer.
  I strongly suggest that Miss White be instructed on the proper manner towards customers. I hope you attach importance to this matter, and settle it as soon as possible.  
Yours,
Wei Lei
  
Sample 2  

Dear Sir/Madam,
  I am writing to you about a most unhappy experience. Last Wednesday morning, we took a long-route bus of your company from Nanchang to Jinggang Mountain. The bus was scheduled to arrive in Jianggang Mountain at 7 o'clock in the evening, but it stopped midway at 5 pm for mechanical problems. The driver and the ticket seller could neither solve the problem by themselves nor seek help from others.
  Where we stopped was nowhere near a village. Up until 9 o'clock, another bus finally carried us to a shabby rural motel. We had to pay for our accommodation. The room was too small and the quilt was so dirty. To our surprise, when we just managed to sleep at around 2 am, the driver came to wake us up — the bus had been fixed!
  I suggest that you look into this matter immediately and deal with it quickly and properly.
  Looking forward to your reply.
Yours,
Wang Li

 楼主| 张老师 发表于 2019-7-26 17:42:33 | 显示全部楼层
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福师《大学英语(2)》第六课FAQ
独立结构
Independent Structure
   一般的非谓语动词或非谓语动词短语作状语时,其逻辑主语就是主句的主语;而独立主格结构作状语的条件就是其逻辑主语和主句的主语不一致。独立主格结构的作用相当于分词短语作状语,表示原因、时间、让步、伴随状况等。下面就分别按不定式独立结构、现在分词独立结构、过去分词独立结构和with独立结构来分别举例说明。  
1. 不定式独立结构
  (1) 不定式具有它的独立主语时,二者即构成不定式独立结构,常用作状语表示伴随情况。例如:
We divided the work, he to clean the window and I to sweep the floor.  我们分了工,他擦窗户,我扫地。
A number of officials followed the emperor, some to hold his robe, others to adjust his girdle, and so on.  许多官员尾随皇帝之后,有的拎着皇帝的衣袍,有的则给他整腰带,等等。
  (2) 不定式独立结构之前也可以有with。例如:
They are highly mechanized farms, with machinery to do all the work.  这些都是高度机械化的农场,所有的活都是机器干的。
2. 现在分词独立结构
  (1) 现在分词可以有其独立的逻辑主语。这种主语常常是名词或代词,置于现在分词之前,构成分词独立结构。现在分词独立结构常用作状语,置于句首或句末,偶尔也置于句中,可以用来表示时间、原因、条件、方式或伴随情况等。例如:
The dark clouds having dispersed, the sun shone again.  乌云已散去,太阳又普照大地了。
The students having done all the exercises, the teacher went on to explain the text.  学生做完所有的练习后,老师接着讲课文。
The monitor being ill, we'd better put the meeting off.  班长病了,我们最好还是延期开会吧。
Weather permitting, we'll go for a picnic.  要是天气允许的话,我们就去野餐。
Their room being on the third floor,its window overlooks the playground.  他们的房间在三层,窗户俯视着操场。
  (2) 现在分词独立结构中的逻辑主语如果是非人称代词it,有时可以省略。例如:
Being Sunday, we had a picnic in the suburb.(being之前省去了it)  那天是星期天,我们到郊外野餐。
  (3) 现在分词独立结构之前可以用介词with,但介词with在此没有什么意义,只是相对而言比较口语化。例如:
We went into a large waiting room with a large fan spinning overhead.  我们走进一个大的候诊室,头上有一个大电扇运转着。
With the dogs leading, the police began to search for the criminal.  有警犬在前面带路,警察开始搜索罪犯。
  (4) 介词without也可以引导现在分词独立结构。例如:
The war was over,without a shot being fired.  一弹未发,战争就结束了。
3. 过去分词独立结构
  (1) 过去分词有时可以有独立的主语,构成分词的独立结构。过去分词的独立主语常由名词或代词主格担任,一般置于过去分词之前。过去分词独立结构多用在书面语中,常用作状语,可以放在句首、句末或句中,表示时间、原因、方式和伴随情况、条件、结果等。例如:
The work done, we felt relieved.  工作完成了,我们感到很轻松。
All our savings gone, we started looking for jobs.  积蓄全部用完了,我们就开始找工作了。
He gazed, his hands thrust into his pockets.  他凝视着,双手插在兜里。
It rained and rained, vehicles bogged down and bridges washed out.  雨不断地下,车辆陷入泥沼,桥梁被水冲走。
  (2) 有时过去分词独立结构可以用来修饰前面的名词。例如:
I recalled Jane, long dark hair tumbled over her shoulders.  我记得简,一头乌黑的长发披在她肩上。
  (3) 过去分词独立结构之前可用介词with,其意义没有变化,只是较为口语化。例如:
She came back with a basket filled with vegetable and fruit.  她带了一篮子蔬菜和水果回来了。
4. with独立结构
上面讲不定式独立结构、现在分词独立结构和过去分词独立结构时都分别提到了加with构成的独立结构,意义上没有什么变化,只是较为口语化。独立结构也可以不用不定式和分词,只由 with+宾语+介词词组或副词构成。这样的句子就更加口语化了。例如:
The little girl ran to her mother with a red leaf in her hand.  小女孩手里拿着一片红叶跑向她妈妈。
She was so tired that she went to sleep with her clothes on.  她太累了,以至于没脱衣服就睡着了。
The teacher went into the classroom, with a book in his hand/a book in hand.  老师手里拿着一本书走进教室。

 楼主| 张老师 发表于 2019-7-26 17:43:06 | 显示全部楼层
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福师《大学英语(2)》第八课拓展资源
感谢信
Letter of Thanks
     感谢信属于个人信函,有时也会用于商务等正式场合。感谢信是用来对馈赠礼物或曾经得到某人的关怀、照顾和帮助表达感谢之情的信函,在西方国家用得比较普遍。与英美人士打交道,你会发现他们在许多场合都会写感谢信。当他们收到朋友馈赠的礼物,或在困难时得到别人的帮助,或出去旅行受到盛情款待,除了当面致谢,他们还会写信以表谢意。

     感谢信的基本结构和内容如下。
  (1) 表达谢意,并点明原因。
  (2) 具体说明对该事件或礼物的想法和感激之情。
  (3) 再次表达谢意。

     在写感谢信时一定要注意以下几点。
  (1)一定要提及感谢的具体原因和内容。例如,对朋友赠送礼物表示感谢的信,一定要提到所赠的礼物及自己对礼物的喜爱之情;又如因为曾在对方家里小住而写的感谢信,一定要提到在对方家里居住时候的感受。不要只写感谢的空话套话,而忽视了真正的理由。
  (2)在感谢的同时也可以加上一些具体的感受,以强化感激之情。例如,如果收到的礼物是相册,你可以提及你不久前拍了一组照片,收到相册真是太及时了;再如住院时收到鲜花,可以说每天看着鲜花,神清气爽,心情顿时变得愉悦起来。
  (3)一定要写得真诚,表达诚挚的感激之情,不能给人一种草率的印象。
  (4)如果有必要,可以用回赠礼物的方式具体表达谢意。

     表达谢意常用的句型如下。
  Thank you very much for ...十分感谢……
  Many thanks for your ... 非常感谢您……
  Please accept my sincere appreciation for ... 请接受我对……真挚的感谢。
  I am truly grateful to you for ... 为了……,我真心感激您。
  It was good (thoughtful) of you ... 承蒙好意(关心)……
  You were so kind to send ... 承蒙好意送来……
  Thank you again for your wonderful hospitality and I am looking forward to seeing you soon. 再次感谢您的盛情款待,并期待不久后见到您。
  I find an ordinary “thank-you” entirely inadequate to tell you how much ... 我觉得一般的感谢的字眼完全不足以表达我对您多么地……
  I sincerely appreciate ... 我衷心地感谢……
  I wish to express my profound appreciation for ... 我对……深表谢意。
  Many thanks for your generous cooperation. 十分感谢您的合作。

     以下是两封感谢信,第一封属于个人信函,第二封是感谢外国政府机构的热情款待,属于对外商务函件。两封信的信头和信内地址都已省略。

Sample 1
Dear Mr. Martin,
  How are things going with you in Beijing? I am writing to express my sincere thanks to you for all your help in improving my oral English.
  During this summer, you tutored me in my oral English before you went to Beijing. Despite the hot weather, everyday you taught me a lot of skills, showed me how to express my idea clearly in English and tried many different ways to help me practice. With your help I made such rapid progress that I won the first place in the English Speech Contest of my city,Wuhan,just a week ago. My achievement is owed much to your help. Thank you very much.
  I have heard that you and your wife will pay a visit to my school. I am very glad at the news. In that case we can see each other again. I am looking forward to your coming. I am sending you a telescope as a small gift. I hope you will like it.
  All the best wishes.
Yours,
Sun Li

Sample 2
Dear Minister,
I am writing this letter to thank you for your warm hospitality to me and my delegation during our recent visit to your beautiful country. I would also like to thank you for your interesting discussion with me, which I have found very informative and useful.

During the entire visit, my delegation and I were overwhelmed by the enthusiasm expressed by your business representatives on cooperation with China. I sincerely hope we could have more exchanges like this one when we would be able to coninue our interesting discussion on possible ways to expand our bilateral economic and trade relations and bring our business people together.

I am looking forward to your early visit to China when I will be able to pay back some of the hospitality I received during my memorable stay in your country.

With kind personal regards,

Faithfully yours,
Tony Liang

 楼主| 张老师 发表于 2019-7-26 17:43:17 | 显示全部楼层
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福师《大学英语(2)》第八课FAQ
主谓一致
Consistency of Subject and Predicate
   主谓一致遵循许多原则,概括起来不外乎三种一致原则,即:语法形式一致、概念一致(语言内容上一致)、毗邻一致(谓语动词的单复数形式和紧位于其前的主语一致)。
另外,还有代词的指代一致,即代词应该在人称、数、性等方面与所指的词保持一致。
1. 语法形式一致
  (1) 单数主语、单个动词不定式、动名词短语及句子作主语,谓语动词要用单数形式。复数主语,用and或both ...and ...连接的动词不定式短语、动名词短语及主语从句作主语,谓语动词则用复数形式。例如:
Serving the people is my great happiness.  为人民服务是我最大的幸福。
Whether we'll go depends on the weather.   我们去不去要取决于天气的好坏。
What I think and what I seek have been fairly reflected in my paper.  我所思考的和我所寻求的都在这个论文中体现了出来。
  (2) 由as well as, with, along with, like, together with, rather than, except, but, including, accompanied by, plus, besides, in addition to, no less than 等引起的结构跟在主语后面,不能看作是并列主语,该主语不受这些词组引导的插入语的影响,主语如是单数,其谓语动词仍然用单数形式。例如:
The reading course book, plus its reference books, is helpful to college students.  教材加上参考书对大学生是非常有益的。
The man together with his wife and children sits on the sofa watching TV.  那个人和他的妻儿坐在沙发上看电视。
  (3) 有些代词只能指单数可数名词,当它们在句子中作主语时,尽管在意义上是多数,谓语动词仍要用单数形式。这类代词有either, neither, each, one, the other, another, somebody, someone, something, anyone, anything, anybody, everyone, everything, everybody, no one, nothing, nobody等。例如:
Neither likes the friends of the other.   两人都不喜欢对方的朋友。
Everything around us is matter.  我们周围的所有东西都是物质。
  (4) 当and连接的两个名词是指同一个人或同一件事,若and后的名词前没有冠词,谓语动词应该用单数形式;若and后面的名词前有冠词,谓语就用复数形式。例如:
The bread and butter is served for breakfast.   早饭供应黄油面包。
The bread and the butter are on sale.   正在出售黄油和面包。
  (5) 当one of, a portion of, a series of, a species of, a chain of 等结构作主语时,谓语动词要用单数形式。例如:
One of those students has passed the examination.  这些学生只有一个考试及格了。
A series of pre-recorded tapes has been prepared for language laboratory use.  为语音课提前准备了一系列录音磁带。
  (6) 由“one and a half + 复数名词”或“the majority of + 名词”作主语时,谓语动词视名词的单复数形式而定。例如:
The majority of the damage is easy to repair.  大部分的损坏品都容易修理。
  (7) plenty of, half of, a lot of, lots of, heaps of, loads of, scads of等加上可数与不可数名词作主语时,不可数名词的谓语只用单数,可数名词的谓语视可数名词的单复数而定。例如:
There is plenty of water in the pail.  桶里有好多水。
There are plenty of eggs in the box.  箱子里有好多鸡蛋。
  (8) 由more than one (或more than one + 单数名词)或many a加上单数名词作主语,谓语动词要用单数形式。例如:
More than one student has passed the examination.   不止一个学生通过了这次考试。

Many a boy learns to swim before he can read.  许多男孩在认字前就学会了游泳。
  (9) 如果名词词组中心词是“分数或百分数 + of + 名词”,谓语动词的单、复数形式取决于of后面的名词或代词的单、复数形式。例如:
Over three-quarters of the land has been reclaimed.   四分之三多的土地已经收回了。
Two-thirds of the people present are against the plan.   到场的三分之二的人都反对这个计划。
  (10) 定语从句谓语动词的单复数形式应与先行词一致。例如:
He is one of the men who were chosen to represent the group.   他是被选出来代表该组的人中的一个。
"Keep cool" is the first of the rules that are to be remembered in an accident.  “镇静”是事故发生时应当牢记的第一条原则。
2. 概念一致(语言内容上一致)
  (1) 有些集合名词,如crowd, family, team, orchestra(管弦乐队), group, government, committee, class, school, union, firm, staff, public等,作主语时,谓语动词的数要根据语言内容而定。如果它们作为一个集体单位时,谓语动词用单数形式;如果就其中的各个成员来说,则谓语用复数形式。例如:
His family is going to move.   他准备搬家。
His family are very well.   他的家人身体都很好。
  (2) 有些表示总体意义的名词,形式上是单数,而意义上却是复数,谓语动词要用复数形式,如people, police, military, cattle, poultry(家禽)等。例如:
The police are searching for a tall dark man with a beard.   警察正在搜寻一位肤色黝黑、长胡子的高个子男人。
  (3) 有些名词形式上是复数,而意义上却是单数,如news, means, works;还有许多以-ics结尾的学科名称,如economics, physics, mechanics, politics等,它们作主语时,谓语动词要用单数形式。例如:
Politics is a complicated business.   政治学是一门复杂的学科。
Here is the news.   下面播报新闻。
  (4) 用and连接的单数主语,前面有each, every, many a, no等修饰时,谓语动词要用单数形式。复数主语与each连用时,应不受each的影响,谓语动词仍用复数形式。例如:
Every boy and girl is treated in the same way.   每个男孩、女孩都要一视同仁。
Many a boy and many a girl has seen the movie.   很多姑娘、小伙子都看过这部电影。
The old workers and the young each have their own tools.   青老年工人各自都有自己的工具。
  (5) 表示重量、度量、衡量、价值的复数名词作主语时,谓语动词常用单数形式。例如:
Twenty miles is a long way to walk.  二十英里可是个不近的路程。
Three pints isn't enough to get me drunk.   三品脱还不至于把我灌醉。
  (6) the+形容词作主语时,如主语指的是一类人,谓语动词用复数形式;如果主语指的是单个人或抽象概念,谓语动词用单数形式。例如:
The departed was a good friend of his.   死者是他的一位好友。
3. 毗邻一致(就近原则)
  (1) 由连词or, neither ...nor, either ... or, not only ... (but)also, nor等连接的并列主语,谓语动词的单复数形式按毗邻一致的原则,与贴近它的主语一致。例如:
Either you or he is no telling the truth.   没讲真话的不是你就是他。
Not only the switches but also the old wiring has been changed.  不仅开关,连那些老化的电路都已经更换了。
  (2) 在there be 的结构中,谓语动词的单复数形式一般也采取就近原则。例如:
There is a desk and four benches in the office.   办公室有一张桌子、四条长凳。
There are two chairs and a desk in the office.   办公室有两把椅子、一张桌子。
4. 代词的指代一致
   指代一致是指句中的代词应该在人称、数、性等方面与所指的词保持一致。
  (1) 当everyone, everybody, no one, nobody, anyone, anybody, someone, somebody等作主语时,相应的代词一般采用单数形式。例如:
If anyone calls, tell him I'll be back later.   如果有人找我,就说我一会儿回来。
Everyone thinks he is the center of universe.   每个人都认为自己是宇宙的中心。
  (2) 由neither ...nor, not only ...but also, either ...or, not ...but, or等连接的并列主语,其后的附加疑问部分主语用复数代词。例如:
Neither you nor I am wrong, are we?   你我都没错,对吧?
Both Tom and Jack came, didn't they?  汤姆和杰克都来了,对不对?
  (3) 当句子的主语是one, 并要在句子中多次出现时,一般用第三人称单数代词来代替后面将出现的one或one's;当one在句子中泛指人时,在反意疑问句中也可用you来代替。例如:  
One should never blame his friends even his friends committed some careless mistakes.  当朋友犯了疏忽的小错时不要老指责朋友的过失。
One can't be too careful, can you (one)?   一个人无论怎么样小心都不为过,对不对?

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